How much money did carpenters make in colonial times

How much money did carpenters make in colonial times

Author: Bobobob Date of post: 26.05.2017

For discussion of history and genealogy of the New River Valley of North Carolina and Virginia you are welcomed to join NCNR. Click to join NCNR. After about two years of work we have completed a major upgrade to New River Notes. On January 21, we switched in the last of the updated files and final page revisions.

In January we introduced the new site layout but because there were many pages left to do there was a big red Under Construction on the front page. A year later we've finished all of the pages that were on the original site. We have a great looking site full of material to help you in your research and possibly entertain you. A site like this can't just freeze in time. It must be maintained, New River Notes, a leading genealogy resource for the New River Valley of North Carolina and Virginia, launched its new look website today.

New River Notes was originally launched in by Jeffrey C. Weaver providing New River Valley researchers with a new wealth of information and that tradition is continued today by the Grayson County, Virginia Heritage Foundation, Inc.

Welcome and we hope you enjoy our new look. Can be purchased at http: For a number of years the author of this work has been greatly interested in study of the History of Virginia, his native State.

The deeper he has delved into the records of the Colonial period, the more has he been impressed with the dearth of material, dealing with many important events and characters, found available to the general reading public. When first engaged in research, there was no thought of giving the results of the investigation to public print. It was only deemed a pleasant pastime for idle hours, fostered by earnest desire to know more of the part taken, by our colonial ancestors, in the foundation and development of the great Republic of today.

The information, thus obtained, impressed the writer with the sad fact that Virginians, as a class, have not been as loyally enthusiastic in endeavor to familiarize themselves with the important legacies the colony has bequeathed to the American Nation, as have the citizens of other sections where later colonies were planted. This lack of knowledge has not been entirely through failure of interest on the part of Virginia citizens, but, owing, one is constrained to believe, to the fact that information to be obtained is, often, only available in rare and costly works; timeworn, musty manuscripts, filed away in National and State Libraries, or, within the pages of old record books, yet to be catalogued or indexed.

No criticism, intended or implied, is lodged against the school histories written by gifted Virginians of today. These authors have found it necessary to cover a wide range of historical data, within a limited number of pages. In thus attempting to write the history of the various periods, viz. The author, of this volume, has not attempted to cover more than the "Period of Formation," which extended from the first settlement to the time of the so called, "Bacon's Rebellion.

The "Period of Transition"--The interval between the First Declaration of Independence, July 4th, ; and the signing of the Declaration of July 4th,may be treated of in a volume to be published later. The prime object of the writer, when the chapters of this volume were first prepared for publication, was to interest Virginians in the Historical Pageant, staged ire the Capital City, the week of May 22nd,and give assurance of the mass of material available for preparation of such an enterprise.

The articles appeared, weekly in the Richmond Times Dispatch, running through a series covering seven or eight months, and the reception by the public was a source of gratification to the author. In fact, there were so many requests, that the series appear in book form, he was constrained to feel, not only repaid for the labor and time taken in preparation of the articles, but, justified in revising and preparing them for publication in book form, at a price within the means of anyone desiring to possess a copy.

The author wishes to tender acknowledgment of valuable data secured through study of the works of eminent Virginians, authors colonial and modern.

The Majority of these works are rare and out of print, now available, only to visitors of the Congressional Library, Virginia State Library, Virginia Historical Society, or libraries of the University of Virginia, William and Mary, Hampden-Sidney, and other of the older colleges of the State. Few private libraries treasure copies of these rare and costly volumes. Among works examined, and from which valuable information has been obtained, may be mentioned, Tyler's"Cradle of the Republic"; Brown's-"First Republic"; Collections of the Virginia Historical Society; and the Histories of Virginia, by Captain John Smith, Beverly, Stith, Campbell, Chambers, Howe, and others.

Graham's History of the United States, in unabridged form, has proven of great value in parallel reading. Stanard, Librarian of the Virginia Historical Society; Morgan P. Robinson, State Archivist; Earl G. Swem, Librarian of the College of William and Mary; and Dr. Tyler, the Historian, appreciation is expressed for counsel and advice, at all times freely given.

The data, furnished the author by Rev. Joseph Magri, relative to the early Spanish settlements in Virginia, has proven invaluable in the preparation of the chapter on that subject. To him testimonial of appreciation is also expressed. That a colony was planted in Virginia, at or near Jamestown, inagain on the Rappahannock inis not generally known. Many have given ear, to the myth of the ten or twelve year old Pocahontas' love for Captain Smith and to vilifications against the patriot Bacon and his followers, without attempt to refute them.

They know nothing regarding the genesis of the country of their birth, nor of the one in which they now reside. Is the school boy, or girl, of today, as familiar with the correct names of the vessels used to transport the colonists to Jamestown, inas with that of the ship which brought the Pilgrims to Plymouth Rock, inthirteen years afterward? Do they realize the service rendered the colony by the converted Indian boy, Chanco?

Can they tell the story of the career and adventures of the "Treasurer? These questions are not designed to embarrass the reader, but, to induce Virginians to give more attention to the study of Colonial History, not alone within the pages of this volume, but wherever information can be obtained.

The "Pageant of Virginia," written and dramatized by Dr. Thomas Woods Stevens, was intended to impress all, who were so fortunate as to attend the great production, with the wonderful history of the commonwealth. So well was it presented, and acted by Virginians, ably assisted by the masterly reading of Rev. Homy, as Mage of the Tower, it will never be forgotten by those who witnessed its delightful pageantry. This volume is sent forth, to assist in the awakened interest the Pageant aroused, and to instil into the hearts of both those who were present, and those who could not attend, a greater love and reverance for their State.

With this explanation of the purpose for which the volume is published, it is sent forth, with the hope that its readers may find, within its pages, inspiration to emulate those who never hesitated to yield up their lives a sacrifice to service for future generations. May the reader find inspiration to take a part in perpetuating their memory, ever remembering that posterity should be given just cause to be as proud of us as we have reason for revering those who have gone before.

This accomplished, the mission of the volume will not have proven in vain. When the Founders of the Nation settled at Jamestown, the whole country- with the exception of small patches cleared by fire, was a vast forest. The thick and lofty groves grew- died and decayed without interruption by the hand of man, except where a few were felled by aid of sharp stones. In the Tidewater section, the river sides were covered with swamps, marsh and stagnant water.

There were no domestic animals, of any kind, but the deer, moose, elk, bear, wolf and a species of lion, squirrels, rabbits and other quardrupeds, summing up in species to the number of twenty-eight, roamed the forest at will.

It is recorded that there were eighty-six varieties of birds in great abundance. In the streams there were almost every known variety of fish, and in the woods the natives found chestnuts, grapes, walnuts, crab-apples, whortlehe rries, strawberries, etc.

Special attention was paid to the raising and preparation of tobacco Uppowac of which both sexes were verve fond of smoking and offering as incense to their Deities. It seems almost unbelievable, when one reads that the labor of the squaws, who.

The Indians of Virginia were members of the great Algonquin Nation, whose territory extended along the southern borders of the present State [with exception of a small strip occupied by the Manakins, of the Tuscarora tribe, Monacanthe Manahoac and small tribes of Chowanoc, Nottoway and Meherrin, who with their neighbors, the Cherokees of western North Carolina, were of the Iroquoise Nation. The Algonquin territory extended along the northern shores of the Ohio to its confluence with the Mississippi, following the eastern bank of the river to the Lake of the Woods and Lake Winnipeg in Canada.

The Great Lakes, with the exception of Erie, Ontario and the eastern shore of the Huron, were within their borders, and, in fact, all of Canada east of the points mentioned was zealously claimed as Algonquin hunting ground, on which the Iroquois must not venture, thence, but southward from Lake Champ lain they held sway along the Atlantic Coast as far as the South Carolina border.

Apparently, the Iroquoise were dwellers in the Eastern section of the continent before the arrival of the Algonquins, for a wedge was driven between the Cherokees and Tuscaroras in the South and the "Five Nations" of the Iroquoise in the North. The "Five Nations," or tribes, were surrounded on all sides by Algonquin enemies. Neither nation was descendant from the original inhabitants of Virginia.

Their forefathers had conquered a race much their superior in knowledge of the arts and sciences of civilization; a people who understood the use and manufacture of metal instruments of war and peace. We have little knowledge of them other than relics excavated from the great mounds, tumuli and earthworks, still to be found, in the western section of the State and extending as far as the Mississippi.

We have a lasting memorial to these Alleghee in having given our mountains the name of the Alleghanies. The Iroquoise called them the Mooneyed Peopletheir tradition being that they could not see well in the day time and that they were easily conquered.

The Algonquins having no such tradition, gives further proof of latter settlement. The Algonquins were the first Indians met by the colonists who landed at Jamestown, Roanoke Island, Provincetown and Plymouth. Their Nations were divided into tribes, such as the Powhatan, Pamunkey, Mattaponi and others. These were subdivided into families or clans, each clan being descendant from a remote ancestress. Descent was from the female side of the house and each had a symbol, or coat of arms, that distinguished one family from another.

The clan names were representative of some animal, bird or reptile, such as bear, eagle or snake, illustrated by crude pictures drawn in colors upon shield or tepee, and tatooed upon the face or body. A clan's family would dwell in one house lengthened as the family grew. Sometimes as many as persons occupied one hut.

The tepees were crudely framed of bent saplings and covered with mats of bark or grass, and there being no chimneys, the smoke of the fireside escaped through holes in the roof or door.

An injury to a member of a clan was an injury to all, and the offender, or his clan, must pay in like manner. The chief men of each clan formed the Council of the tribe, presided over by the hereditary chief, who was not necessarily the War Chief, as this honor was conferred upon a leader who had distinguished himself by prowess and strategy in battle. Should a chief desire to declare war on an enemy, the Council would solemnly deliberate on the question, and, if an affirmative decision was made, the best orators would be sent to other friendly tribes in the neighborhood, in an attempt to show cause for declaration of war and the advantage it would he for them to become allies.

Before beginning hostilities, it was considered proper end honorable to send an ultimatum to the enemy, though this was not always observed, and for this purpose a tomahawk, painted red, was used. The enemy would send a similar hatchet in return.

Sometimes a hastily formed scouting party would capture one of the members of the challenging tribe, torture and dispatch him, leaving the body- in which the red tomahawk was imbedded, where it could be easily- discovered.

When either party desired peace, a pipe elaborately carved and embellished with tribal insignia, was sent to the enemy. The messenger was safe from capture or harm and the communication received with respect by the War. If peace was accepted, the two Councils would meet, smoke the pipe of peace and exchange belts of wampum to he kept as memorials of the pledge of friendship.

Wampum was made from shell laboriously cut into button-like shape and pierced by stone instruments. The most valuable was the purple section found in the round clam, and it is stated that, notwithstanding the labor required in cutting out and forming these buttons, there were great quantities in possession of the Indians.

A prisoner of war was not necessarily tortured and executed. The mother or father of a son lost in battle could claim the captive and have him adopted into the tribe, though sometimes by ordeal, and he became a son of the bereaved parent, assuming the name of the one who had been slain.

The amount of pain an Indian captive would suffer without evincing distress, has ever been a source of amazement to the white race. He would stoically- stand the torture, with a smile of derision, chant of the wonderful exploits of his tribe, berate his captors for their clumsiness in the execution, and proudly boast of the artistic manner in which he and companions had tortured members of the enemies' family.

Both men and women tatooed their faces and bodies, the flesh being scarified in crude designs and pigments of red, blue, etc. Healing, it would thus remain visible in outline, for life. Both sexes pierced their ears and inserted therein sticks of gradually increasing sizes until the desired opening was obtained. Ornaments of all kinds were suspended therefrom, and the more hideous and repulsive the warrior could obtain, the better it suited his purpose.

Ofttimes live snakes a foot or more long, or lizards and other reptiles wiggled and squirmed about their faces, the tails passing through their ears and being firmly secured.

The warrior's head was bare on one side, the hair having been pulled out strand by strand, but a scalp lock was always worn, adorned with feathers and painted porcupine quills, serving as a challenge to an enemy to take it if he could, just as a small boy of today puts a chip upon his shoulder and gives his companions the "dare. If a warrior be lefthanded his hair was cut on the left side.

The Indian wore no beard, the hair being pulled out with tweezers made of two flat stones or shells; hirsute adornment being considered a sign of femininity by the Indian beaux. Indian maidens shaved their heads around the ears and forehead, ,wearing their hair down the back.

This was accomplished by rubbing the hair between two sharp stones or shells. When they were married, the hair was permitted to grow, and they took great pride in its length. In some southern tribes, a newly made widow would cut the long hair from her head and strew it upon the grave of her deceased husband.

She could not marry again until the hair was of former length. Clothing was designed to give freedom of movement and was made from woven grass, bark, feathers or tanned skins upon which the hair remained. Leggings of skin were worn to protect the limbs from briars and undergrowth while moccasions of deer skin, skilfully tanned and ornamented, formed protection for their feet. In warm weather the young boys and girls were nude.

They worshipped the Great Spirit, who was feminine and supposed to dwell in the moon, and an evil spirit called Hobamocko. The redbird was the ambassador and news carrier of the Great Spirit, therefore, held as sacred. To the Great Spirit they gave reverence and expressed gratitude for natural benefits, while to the other, it was thought necessary to pay assiduous devotion, else he inflict with his wrath.

The evil spirit was masculine. Every important object had a tutelary divinity, and each individual a guardian spirit. Upon the death of a brave warrior he would be transported to a Happy Hunting Ground, far away to the southwest, there to pursue, without hunger or fatigue, such favorite employments as would render an eternity delightful. His favorite weapons were buried with him for use in the other world. If his scalp was taken in battle, there was doubt of his enjoying the blessings above mentioned, unless, buried with him, were the scalps he had taken, which he was supposed to barter in return for his own.

Probably they fancied that in the Happy Hunting Ground there were dealers in scalps, such as we find dealing- in tickets, the scalpers of today. Their weapons of stone, arrows, tomahawks, etc. The head of the tomahawk was often forced through the center of a young sapling and there imbedded until the wood of the sapling grew around it.

The handle would then be cut to the proper length for use. The men spent their time making weapons, hunting, fishing, and at war. The women did all of the menial work and were required to erect their tents, pull them down and carry them in their migrations.

To John Cabot and his three sons, Lewis, Sebastian and Sancto, must be bestowed the honor of first discovering the mainland of North America, The voyages of the Northenmen are not considered in modern discovery, as they were productive of no permanent benefit. The record of their adventures are confined only to Sagas and Egas of Iceland, unknown in Europe when Columbus made discovery of Santo Domingo.

Some doubt has been expressed as to Lewis and Saneto having accompanied their father, but it is known that Sebastian, the second son, made the voyage. Cabot sailed under commission of Henry VII of England, and was a native of Genoa as was Columbus though he had spent most of his life as a citizen of Venice.

He settled at Bristol, England, in The adventurers were supplied with a ship by the King, and four small vessels accompanied, furnished by merchants of Bristol to act as consorts.

The commission was dated March 5,and Cabot was directed "to discover and occupy isles or countries of the heathern or infidels, unknown to Christians; accounting to the king for a fifth part of the profit upon return.

Cabot did not set sail from Bristol until Sailing northwest-he first arrived at Davis Straits. Thence, turning southward, Cape Breton Island and Nova Scotia were sighted on June Nova Scotia was given the name of Prima Vista First View.

Sailing onward he discovered a large island which he called Newfoundland, and in the waters near by first observed the immense schools of cod, which still abound in that section of North America. He reported that the cod were so numerous "they sumtymes stayed his shippes. Victuals running low, Cabot landed and trafficed with the nativesobtaining supplies for use while returning to England.

As a result of this traffic turkeys were first introduced into England. Some writers claim the voyage to Virginia was made while on a second expedition, one year later, but John Cabot died in England in The fickle Henry had turned his attention toward war with Scotland and had also commenced negotiations for the marriage of his son, Prince Arthur, to Catherine, daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella.

He had lost interest in the Cabot enterprise and had no wish to antagonize the claims of the Spanish sovereigns, who asserted proprietary rights to the New World through the prior discoveries of Columbus. Sebastian Cabot entered the service of Spain, and made a number of voyages to South America, but never returned to Virginia. It was while Sebastian Cabot was in the service of Spain that the German schoolmaster, Woldseemuler, who had transformed his name into Hylacomlyus, proposed to members of the Academy that the new continent be called "America," in honor of his friend Amerigo Vespucci, the false claimant to been the first discover of the continent.

Does it not appear a singular coincidence that Columbus, in the service of Spain; Cabot in the service of England, and Americus Vespucius, were Italians, and that another Italian, in the service of France, should be the next explorer to visit Virginia? Giovanni Verrazano borndied a Florentine, in the service of Francis L, of France, on a voyage along the eastern coast of North America, landed near Cape Charles in27 years after the visit of Cabot.

He explored the peninsular and expressed the opinion that the Chesapeake was an arm of the Pacific Ocean. He makes mention of this conclusion on a map he drafted 'at the time. Verrazano captured a number of Indian children and carried them to France as proof of his discovery, but before returning to Europe he sailed as far north as Newfoundland, and en route visited New York harbor and Narragansett Bay, also explored the Neighboring Coast.

Claiming right of prior discovery he named the entire country Nova Francia New France and declared it a possession of the French throne. On his return to Europe, he found France at war with Germany and Spain, and as a result, the voyage of Verrazano proved as abortive as had the explorations of Cabot.

Nova Francia, Nueva Espana, New Amsterdam, New HollandVirginia; truly America was blessed with a multiplicity of names bestowed upon it by the rival claimants to its territory. Happily the last was to prove the survivor of the three others. Were it not for letters, maps and official documents, discovered in the old archives of Spain, nothing would he known of the Spanish attempt to colonize Virginia.

Fortunately, through these faded manuscripts, we know that as early as the Chesapeake and its tributaries here explored, thirty--two years after Columbus' first voyage, and antedating the Jamestown settlement of by eighty-three years. The documents record that one rear after the exploration of the peninsula by- Verrazano, Lucas Vasques de Ayllon, a lawyer and judge of Santo Domingo, obtained a patent from King Charles Carlos of Spain, Ferdinand died in Carlos Charleshis grandson, succeeded him.

Carlos died in and was succeeded by Philip II. It was Philip II who, through his ambassador, Gondomar, envoy to the court of James I. It was in June,that de Ayllon set sail, with three small vessels, from Puerto de la Plata, Santo Domingo. Accompanying him were six hundred men, women and children, with sufficient supplies and horses.

As special companions and advisors of de Ayllon. De Ayllon entered the Chesapeake Bay, which he named Madre de las Aguas 'Mother of Watersand ascending the Guandape James River landed at a place he called St. Ecija, the Spanish pilot, who entered the Chesapeake, inin search of information regarding the English, settlement, reported to his government that the colony was located on the exact spot chosen by- de Ayllon for settlement.

De Ayllon and his followers constructed rude puts, a chapel AN-as erected and temporary defenses planned. His settlement at St. Michael Called by the Spaniards - San Migue de Guandape. Guandape was the name given the James River and the new territory.

The river has had four names-Guandape, Powhatah, King's and James. Little is known of the trials and vicissitudes of the little settlement, other than that de Ayllon died of fever within four months after landing and the colonists passed through a severe winter exposed to both disease, hostile Indians and insurection of negro slaves which decimated their ranks and left the survivors almost hopeless of rescue.

Within one rear after the colony was established, Francis Gomez, who had succeeded to the command, embarked the survivors upon two ships, one having sunk, and sailed for Santo Domingo. En route one of the ships founded, with all on board, and only- one hundred and fifty of the six hundred ever reached home again. Among those who returned was Father Montesinos. Thus ended, in disaster, the first Spanish settlement in Virginia, called by them Nueva Espana New Spain. No further attempt at colonization was made untilwhen Menendez, Governor of Florida, desirous of a colony on the Chesapeake, fitted out an expedition headed by Fathers Segura and Louis Quiros, assisted by six Jesuit Brothers, named Soli, Mendes, Linares, Redondo, Gabriel Gomez and Sancho Zevalles.

The expedition planted, its little colony on the banks of the Rappahannock, but was soon betrayed by a supposedly converted Indian who had received the baptismal name of Don Louis de Valasco. He immediately sailed for Axacan, as the settlement was called, captured and hanged the murderers. Shortly before their execution, the manuscripts relate, the murderers were converted and baptised by Father Rojel, a Jesuit Missionary who accompanied the punitive expedition.

Some years ago, a skeleton enclosed in an iron cage was discovered near the banks of the Rappahannock. It leads one to speculate upon the probability of this grim find being all that remained to remind future generations of the second Spanish attempts to Colonize Virginia. The exact location of Axacan is lost in uncertainty. Was it a local name or that of the country? The nearest surviving Indian word that suggests the name, is "Occoquan, a town in Prince William County.

When Captain John Smith explored the Rappahannock, he found an Indian, 'Moscow with whom he could converse and use as an interpreter.

Tosco was of fighter complexion than the other natives and wore beard. Evidently he was a descendant of the ill fated colony. Smith and Newport had found an Indian, whom they used as interpreter, on their voyage to the falls of the James, just ten days after landing at Jamestown, and it is reported they- also saw a youth of light complextion and an old Indian with a beard.

Presumably they were descendants from the Spanish settlement at St. The last record of Spanish visits to the Chesapeake is contained in a report by Pedro Menendez sent to Philip II, of Spain. It was written in and in it he states that for some years "bison skins were brought down the river Potomac and thence carried along shore in canoes to the French seated at the mouth of the St.

Within two yearshe had obtained from the Indians, in trade, skins. The Indian name of the tribe of traders was Patawomeck which translated meant "They go and come" i. The river received its name from the tribe using it for transportation of pelts, etc. It was July 2nd. The Indian name for the region was Wingandacoa, and Winginia was king.

The expedition was in joint command of Captains Philip Amidas and Arthur Barlow, and had left England on April Grapes and fruit appeared in such abundance, growing to the very borders of the sea, even covering shrubs and trees, that the adventurers were enraptured at the sight and landed upon the island of Wococan, thinking themselves upon the mainland.

This island was not far from Roanoke, where was seated Granganameo, brother of the king. On a second visit, several days afterwards, his wife and children accompanied him. It is related that the woman who was "very bashful and modest," had a hand of white coral about her forehead and from her ears extended a string of pearls of the "bigness of peas," that hung down below- her waist.

Other members of the company were "decked in red copper and such ornaments" as -were then in fashion among the Indians. Granganameo, "eat and drank very merrily," and traded "leather, coral, and divers kinds of dyes" with his hosts.

He sent daily- supplies of game, fish, fruit and vegetables, and such friendly relations were thus established that Captain Amidas and seven others of the adventurers paid a visit to Granganameo at Roanoke. Arriving at the town, found to consist of nine houses,-the Indian prince being absent,-his wife received them with great courtesy and kindness. That the reader may realize the real character of the Indian, when treated with friendly consideration and respect, I quote Stith's account of this first reception of the English adventurers in the home of this hospitable family.

When they came into the House, she took off their cloaths and stockings, and washed them, as likewise their feet, in warm water. What a commentary upon our boasted Christian civilization when we read of the Indian hospitality- and compare the intolerance of the men of the second expedition, who, for such a trifling offense as loss of a silver cup,?

The first expedition had returned to England in September of the same year, taking with it Manteo and Wanchese, two Indian subjects of Granganameo. They were welcomed with great acclaim.

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Elizabeth bestowed her name upon the region and knighted Raleigh. The advantageous accounts given by the adventurers, and the two Indians, caused Sir. Edward Greenville to head a second expedition.

He set out the following April with seven ships and a full supply of risen and necessary equipment. Greenville landed at the island formerly- occupied by the first expedition Wococonbut soon selected a party to explore the mainland, under his personal command. The Indians had regarded the English as a superior race of beings, even considering them as direct descendants from the gods; and, there being no women with them, they at first thought all of the white race to be masculine.

What a trifling excuse was seized upon by this bully to wreak vengeance upon a defenseless village and trusting people. How out of proportion the offense, if it occurred, was the exaction of the penalty. Here was first sown the dragon's teeth that changed a confiding King and subjects from open-hearted friendship to secret enmity.

Can we he surprised that the native began to lose confidence in this strange white race from across the sea; that they began matching their wits in endeavor to prevent successful colonization; that two years later the colony at Roanoke, having taken possession of the island on which the Indians had given the first expedition such a hospitable reception-should disappear?

When Greenville returned to England he left persons as a colony, and they, deserting Wococan, chose Roanoke as their place of habitation. When a place was selected for settlement little deference was shown any objection of the original inhabitants to giving up their place of abode. There was nothing for the Wingandacoa to do but move their village to some less coveted spot on island or mainland. This has been the bitter experience of the poor Indian, from the discovery of America, even unto the present generation.

Let us, at least, do them the justice of reviewing the history of their race, its trials and tragedies, without the prejudice of the past centuries, with that Christian charity they so ofttimes richly deserve. We are Christians, but what would we do if we should discover a strange race of people landed within our territory, squatted upon the land we call our own, and using strange engines of destruction against those of our people who endeavored to protest against being dispossessed?

Should find that, not satisfied with the land already seized, they were making exploitation with intention of seating other newcomers of their race? Is it not possible for the strange race to regard our mode of living just as crude as the intolerant Greenville considered the dwellers in the village he destroyed?

Had Greenville been a Penn, and some of the Colonial leaders even as Smith, the massacres of and The explorations of Captain Lane and the colonists left at Roanoke by Greenville inresulted in the discovery of the Chesapeake Bay and Elizabeth River, and upon their return to England with Sir Francis Drake, they gave such a glowing account of the desirability of the Chesapeake section as a site for establishing a permanent colony, Raleigh and his associates were enthusiastic in desire to send out another expedition, with instructions to found a colon- at the newly discovered site.

The hospitality of the Chesapeake Indians, seated on the hanks of the Elizabeth, evidently induced the discoverers to bestow the name upon the great bay, since proven to he one of the most important land-locked harbors of the world, folly justifying the old Spanish appellation. Greenville, unaware that his colon- had returned with Drake, left England for America before they arrived, therefore, upon reaching Roanoke Island, he found the settlement deserted.

Leaving a party, variously estimated at from fifteen to fifty, he shortly sailed for home. These men were never heard of again, evidently having be en massacred by the Indians in retaliation for the great wrong suffered from the exploring party of Greenville's first expedition. Here the settlement was again established. White expected to find the then left Greenville, but a destroyed fort and the bones of one man were all that remained of the part, though the cabins of the members of the first expedition remained uninjured.

The Indians who had been dispossed by Greenville had not again established settlement on the Island and Granganameo, who had befriended the colonists at Wococan, was dead. His wife, who had entertained them with such genuine proof of friendship and hospitality, had returned to her people. White's colonists found they must 'depend upon their own resources Overtures with the Indians under Wingina were attempted with ill success, even Manteo, the Indian who had spent some time in Europe, been concerted and partly educated, could not persuade his tribesmen to again put trust in the men from across the seas.

Several women being in the expedition, the Indians perceived they had been mistaken in their supposition that the white race was masculine and descended from the gods. This, influenced them to no small degree, in their future actions toward the white intruders. George Howe, one of the council, was slain by some of Wingina's men while either hunting or wandering away from the settlement.

Friendship could not be re-established, for the Indian never forgets. Determined to revenge the death of Howe, Governor White, Captain Stafford and twenty-four men, well armed and equipped, made a secret night landing on the main land near what was supposed to be the village of Wingina. The surprise was complete, and one Indian shot before it was discovered that a mistake had been made.

The Indians were a party from Croatan, clansmen of Manteo, who, on his account had continued friendly. That the Indian never forgets may be again recalled by the tragedy of the "Lost Colony. Virginia Dare, his granddaughter, was born during his absence, her mother Ellinor being the wife of Ananias Dare, a member of the council. It was the Indians of Croatan who had been attacked without cause, one of their number shot, their corn confiscated.

It was "Croatan" found carved upon the post, a silent messenger of the fate of Virginia Dare, her mother, father and the hundred or more settlers, when in White returned to Roanoke. The writer is of opinion that only starvation and distress could have caused these men to abandon their settlement for the purpose of seating elsewhere, and it had been agreed that a cross would lie carved, as a sign of distress, should necessity require such a course. Again, is there a valid explanation of why the houses had been taken down and a palisade erected?

The Indians were accustomed to erect such forts for defense, and Powhatan had a similar one near the falls of the James. So well was Powhatan's palisade constructed, it is stated, it would have been impossible for hostile Indians to have taken it. It was purchased by Smith and given the name of None Such, with the intention of seating West and his company there in security. Would the Roanoke colonists have buried their clothing and other impedimenta? Manteo returning to his tribe, his clansmen's anger at the English, his joining them in plotting destruction: The secret landing and attack, planned as had the English in their descent upon them; the massacre; disposal of the bodies in the sea; the clothing and impedimenta placed in a cache for future use, if necessary, as was the Indian custom; the houses pulled down to construct the palisado.

Picture Manteo, the converted Indian, who had received several years of training in England, idly carving "C. How his tribesmen must have grinned and danced in delight when he explained the significance of this warning to Governor White should he return that the Indian never forgets a wrong. Is it not an Indian characteristic that they should thus desire to show their day of reckoning had come?

The smoke rising from the island, seen by White, was probably caused by Indian watchers signaling to their distant brethren the arrival of English ships.

The discharge of the ship's cannon, in warning of arrival, gave ample time for the Indians to disappear ere landing was made. Manteo never again was seen among the English. His tribe was revenged, he was a Red Man, a savage to the end of his days. The English, within less than four years, had twice reaped what they had sown. In both cases the innocent paid the penalty and the guilty escaped. Greenville and the unfortunate White lived to see the result of their folly.

Discouraged by this tragedy, no other attempt at colonization was made during the reign of Queen Elizabeth. Raleigh, discouraged and impoverished by his losses in the several ventures under his patent, assigned his interest to Sir Thomas Smith and a company of London merchants, who are said to have been satisfied, for eighteen years, with petty traffic along the Atlantic Coast. Three hundred and fourteen years have come and gone since that day in May, when a little band of Englishmen landed at Jamestown, to establish the first Anglo-Saxon Colonyand plant the first germ of Democracy upon the Western Continent.

What a far cry there is from the puny little settlement, with its many vicissitudes, to the great Commonwealth of to-day. With only members in the Colony, its territory extended from the thirty-fourth to the forty-fifth parallel, corresponding to the southern border of North Carolina and the southern line of Nova Scotia.

It was divided by charter into the first or Southern Colony, designated for administration by the London Company, and the second, or Northern Colony, apportioned to the cities of Bristol, Exter and Plymouth, associated with the western section of England. The first charter was dated April 10, It stipulated that two settlements were to be founded, at least miles apart, with jurisdiction along the coast to within fifty miles of each other.

Each was granted jurisdiction within miles of the seashore and promised that "No other of our subjects shall be permitted or suffered to plant or inhabit behind or on the back side of them towards the main land without the express license or consent of the Counsel of the Colonies.

As the centuries have advanced and population increased Virginia's territory has gradually decreased, until, with the loss of West Virginia during the Civil War, it has become small indeed in proportion to its original vast extent. Since its cession of the Northwest Territory in so many states have been carved fromits original boundaries it has been rightly named, "The Mother of States.

The three small, vessels on which the Colonists came, to America-"Sarah Constant" of tons, Captain. Christopher Newport; "Good Speed," 40 ton, Captain Bartholomew Gosnold; and the pinnace "Discovery," 20 tons, Captain John Ratcliffe-after a voyage of over four months arrived off Cape Henry on April 26th and anchored off Jamestown on Thursday, May 13, Having debarked, their Chaplain, Rev.

Hunt, led them in a prayer of thanksgiving to God for safe delivery from the terrors of the deep, and Newport proclaimed leis sovereign, James I, as lawful ruler of the entire region. How different the reception, by the Indians, of the voyagers sent out by Sir Thomas Gates, Sir George Summers and others, from that received by the colonists of ! Lane was welcomed by the Chesapeakes; Newport and Grosnold's men savagely attacked upon landing at Cape Henry in search of water. Twentytwo years had passed; the white race had, by their acts, destroyed the pedestal upon which they had beets placed, and instilled into the hearts of the red race was a spirit of enmity and distrust.

What Greenville had sown, the colonists of must reap, at least in part. Yet, welcome and good will awaited the voyagers when they landed on the western shore of the bay. It is probably true that the Indians of Kicoughtan were not advised of the tragic experience of their Algonquin brethren of Croatan. Had the colonists of profited by the example of the Raleigh expedition? When the three small ships arrived at the capes, Captain John Smith had been in close confinement for thirteen weeks.

He had been arrested while the ships were taking on water and supplies at the Canaries. There had been quarrel and dissension ever since leaving Blackwall, even while stormbound off the coast of England for a period of six weeks. Smith was charged with conspiring to murder the members of the council, usurp the government and declare himself king of Virginia.

The absurdity of this charge is evidenced, as the personnel of the council was not known until the expedition arrived within the capes, and Smith was the one man of the expedition who understood how to deal with the aborigines.

The members of the council whose names were found in the sealed box, when opened upon reaching Chesapeake Bay, were. Bartholomew Grosnold, John Smith. Edward Maria Wingfield, Christopher Newport, John Ratcliffe, John Martin and George Kendall. The council elected Wingfield as its president "the first executive officer in Virginia.

Campbell's History of Virginia. The settlers were not satisfied with Ratcliffe's management of affairs. He was soon succeeded by Captain Smith, as the popular choice of the Colony. Smith retained the presidency until his embarkation for England. Percy administered the government after Smith's departure. The Colonists of were not the first Englishmen to enter the capes and partly explore the Chesapeake Bay.

It is recorded by Stith that a party from the Roanoke Colonly entered the capes in and explored to the South of the Bay, discovering the Elizabeth river on the banks of Which the Chesapeake Indians were seated. Stith doubts that the name Chesapeake means "Mother of Waters" as many assert, but suggests that it is derived from the Indian tribe of that name.

He thinks it may owe the interpretation of "Mother of Waters" from translation of an old Spanish map upon which it is described as "'Madre de las Aguas. In describing the seat of the Chesapeakes, probably near Norfolk, it is asserted by the Roanoke Colonists that "for pleasantness of situation, for temperature of clime, fertility of soil and commodiousness to the sea, it was not to be excelled by any in the world.

When Newport entered the Chesapeake Bay some days were spent in endeavor to find a passage over the shoals that prevented the ships, though of small tonnage, entering the James river. They had almost decided to abandon the attempt, after many soundings had been made off Willoughby Spit, where the channel was discovered on the Point Comfort side.

It was on account of their joy at finding deep water that Point Comfort received its name. The name was afterwards changed to Old Point Comfort to distinguish it from New Point Comfort, a cape guarding the entrance to Mob Jack Bay originally Mock Jack, said to be so called on account of echoes from the wooded shore mocking the sailors' voices.

New Point Comfort also guards the entrance to the York. Captain Newport, in charge of the expedition, found among his instructions that he was to settle a Colony at a safe point on a navigable river, but, before making permanent settlement, was to explore the said river.

It was suggested that it might afford passage to the "Other Sea. In accordance with these instructions, Newport set out from Jamestown as soon as home defense could be temporarily organized. He explored the Powhatah, The lower section of the river east of Sandy Point, was called Passpaheghs.

His party consisted of twenty-three adventurers. Among them was Captain John Smith who had been released from confinement after arriving in Virginia when it was found, upon opening the sealed instructions given by the London Company, that Smith was appointed a Member of the Council.

Smith had not as yet been permitted to act with the Council though his worth was recognized by Newport in such an expedition as he was embarking upon. This fact probably saved the little party from destruction, for upon reaching "Turkey Island" an Indian was added to the party, as interpreter, who evidently could converse in the Spanish language. Smith having spent some time in the wars of Spain, was familiar with this tongue.

Smith found an Indian, with whom he could converse, not only on the voyage up the James, about nine days after landing at Jamestown, but also used as interpreter, Mosco, and Indian met on his exploration of the Rappahannock. It is reasonable to assert that these interpreters had some knowledge of the Spanish language, a boy being found with one of them of light complexion, eyes and hair. Had they knowledge of English it would have proven a clue to the lost Colony of Roanoke.

The Jamestown colonists made a number of attempts to discover the fate of their fellow countrymen, urged so to do by positive orders from England. Explorations were made as far south as the Chowan River in effort to discover their fate. The Newport exploring party left Jamestown at noon Thursday, Way 21st arriving at the Falls on the afternoon of the 23rd and landing there on Whit-Sunday May 24th O. Campbell made the error of placing the date of the landing as June 10th, making the interval twenty-eight days after the landing at Jamestown.

As a matter of fact only eleven days had intervened. He first made error of seven days, according to, the old style or Julian calendar by which we record the landing at Jamestown, then added ten days, the difference between the Julian calendar and the new style, or Gregorian.

If one but reads the diary of Archer, or searches the calendar of that year, it can be easily ascertained that Whit-Sunday came on May 24th. The new style calendar had not come into general use in the English speaking world, and the new Year was calculated from March.

In later years, Smith, in his historyused the Gregorian calendar and this accounts for apparent discrepancies in the dates mentioned by him and those quoted by other Colonial writers.

King Powhatan, whose village was on the north bank of the river just east of where Fulton now stands, first refused permission for the adventurers to come ashore on the 23rd, but through the medium of the interpreter a parley was arranged. Powhatan followed along the shore and met 'them at a small island below the falls. This island is now part of the mainland near the northside abutments of Mayor's Bridge. Here it was that Newport set up a cross and took possession of the, land in the name of the King of England.

On the cross there was inscribed the words--Jacobus Rex "Newport's name was written below the inscription. It is said that they christened the stream, "King's river"-Thus the river has been called lay three names-Powhatan, Spaniards called it Guandape.

Powhatan became very much offened at the ceremony of planting the cross and evading towards the shore he started return to the village. The Indian warriors, taking this as indicative of his hostility, began closing in upon the little party and would probably have massacred them, had it not been for the Indian interpreter hastening after the King, under instructions of Newport and Smith, with explanation that the cross was an indication of friendship. He explained that the upright planted in the.

Powhatan accepted the explanation, returned to the island, called off his warriors, embraced Newport, and the crisis was passed. What a surprise it must have been for them to fume on return to the settlement that au attack had been made by the Indians, one boy killed and seventeen men wounded. Stith records that "Had not a cross-bar shot from the ships happened to strike a bough from a tree among them the English had been all cut off, being securely at work, and their arms how much money does a mangaka make a year dry fats.

Is it reasonable to judge the Indians as the sole perpetrators of this first attack upon the settlement, without cause, while the, three ships of the expedition still lay ftse 250 share price history anchor within a few- yards from shore.

Had there been only a savage desire to destroy- would the Passpaheghs, who lived in the neighborhood, have received with every assurance of friendship the little exploring party of Newport and Smith and yet attacked inverted hammer in forex larger force at Jamestown?

We assets for binary options trading system know that upon return of the explorers, Smith's demand for a trial, on should we buy kingfisher stocks charges that had been assets for binary options trading system cause of his disgrace, was reluctantly granted, resulting in his vindication and a fine of pounds charged against the President of the Council in reparation.

Smith gave the money for public use of the Colony, as he was satisfied with the verdict. Hunt preached a sermon on "Peace and Concord" and note the significance -"The day- after, being the fifteenth of June, the Indians voluntarily sued for Peace. Smith had no minor part in bringing about the ending of a situation frought with such danger as to bid far to prove a parallel of the Roanoke tragedy. At the time that the English arrived Powhatan, the Indian king, was about seventy years of age and had several villages moving from one to the other as suited his convenience in making collections from his sub-chiefs.

He required eighty per cent. It seems surprising that he should have had such control over the various tribes when his own tribe had only about fifty warriors. He had the power of life and death not only over individuals but clans and it is said that he utterly annihilated the Chesapeakes and the Kicoughtans for some fancied wrong, notwithstandingtheir combined force was three times that of his own men. The Indian name for Virginia is said by Tyler in his "Cradle of the Republic" to have been "Attanoughkomouclc," meaning "band enclosed for producing or growing," that is, a plantation.

In the summer of Smith continued heavy barrel for ruger mini 14 explorations, following the river down to Kiccoughtan Kecoughtan and across to Waroskoyack Isle of Wrightmaking journies along the shore line, exploring the creeks, etc.

In the fall he began mapping out the country along the banks of the Chickahominy, exploring the river as far as possible for him to use a canoe. On September 17th, and again in November, there was a trial by jury at Jamestown. This English custom was inaugurated within a few months after the arrival of the colonists. January 8,the first ship to arrive in the colony, since the settlement, anchored off Jamestown and landed what is termed the first supply of colonists who indikator forex scalping akurat with others, from a ,ship arriving on the 20th of April, gave a total of additional members, three in excess of the original number of settlers.

There had been sixty-seven deaths in the interval and the colony now numbered Newport, who had sailed for England shortly after his exploration of the James, having left the pinnace "Discovery" for use of the Colony, returned in his two ships with the second supply of seventy more colonists, giving Jamestown a total of men, after deducting for twenty-eight deaths.

He had received express orders, when in England; to explore the country west of the falls of the James, where dwelt the Monacans, hereditary enemies of Powhatan. In deference to the Indian King, no attempt had been made to push west of the now site of Richmond, and it appears that Smith protested against the project, for, declared he "every effort should be subordinated to that of placing Jamestown in a state of defense.

Be that as it may, Newport followed out his instructions and explored at least forty miles above the falls, reaching what is now the boundary of Forex rejection candle. In order to pass the falls his boat was constructed in five sections for easy portage, taken apart below the falls and the parts re-assembled after passing the rocks.

It seems strange to us that such experienced men forex bisnis penipuan still have had an idea that the James would furnish an outlet to the "South Sea" Indian Ocean though it still lingered in the minds of the colony for years after Newport's explorations.

The fact that the Volga, Tanais and Dwina rivers had their sources in the same section yet flowed each into a different sea gave encouragement to the thought that such might prove their good fortune in finding an outlet. Picture our distance from India and contrast it with the lack of knowledge the colonists had as to the extent of the western continent, for, as you already know, the Indians were so-called by being mistaken for inhabitants of the Asiaic country.

Such things seem absurd to the reader of today, yet it is true that, when President Jefferson sent Lewis and Clarke on their explorations to the Pacific coast, he warned against the mammoth, saber tooth tiger and other prehistoric animals, as—fossils having been found in Kentucky—he feared the section through which they passed would probably prove to be the ranging ground of these, long extinct species. The pinnace "Virginia" built in was the first vessel of American construction.

On October 6 Newport arrived with seventy new colonists, but twenty-eight had died since May and the population only totaled Smith explored the Chesapeake and its tributaries, trading with the Indians for corn to supply the colony. The second charter was granted in Sicklemore had been sent by Smith to visit the country of the Chowanocks in an attempt to ascertain if there could be any trace of the lost colony and had returned without any information whatever.

In the Autumn of how to earn daily from stock market, he was severely burned by an accidental explosion of powder, stored in the shallop in which he was returning to Jamestown from Nonesuch site of Richmond. Owing to his great suffering, and lack of means for forex ee treatment in Virginia, he embarked for England "above Michaelmas," Forex czarina. He had been with the colony a little 5 minute binary options trading a scam strategy two years and had not only saved the settlers from starvation but protected them from the Indians.

The savages feared him more than all the others combined. Smith, on numerous occasion had given them cause to respect, as well as fear his skill in directing the colony's affairs. With Captain Percy, and fifteen companions in adventure, he had ascended the York then the Charles to the present site of West Point-- West's Point and, though surrounded by several hundred hostile warriors, under Opecahancanough, had singled out the wiley Chieftain, seized his scalp lock, and pointing a pistol to his breast; made demand that the Indians throw down their arms and supply him with corn.

Such acts as this, compelled the Indians to fear attempting treachery and proved the means of saving the colony from starvation or massacre.

While Smith ,vas risking his life in search how to make money online the shoemoney system food for the settlers, many of them not only made no effort to relieve the situation, but spent hours of idleness at Jamestown playing quoits and pitching thebotnet make money android upon the streets.

He left behind him three ships and seven boats, commodities ready for trade with the Indians; corn, newly gathered, ten weeks' provisions in the store; twenty-four pieces of ordnance; muskets, with other arms and ammunition more than enough for the men; one hundred trained soldiers, nets for fishing, and tools for all brokers for mutual funds of work, sufficient apparel, six mares and a horse the Indians had no horsesfive or sit hundred hogs, a like number of hens and chickens, some sheep and goats.

By June,of left by Smith, there were only sixty alive. This period is recorded as "starving time. Gates had provisions for only sixteen days and intended taking the starving band to Newfoundland in the hope of meeting with assistance from an English fishing fleet.

The Colonists returned to Jamestown, where they received Lord Deleware and joined him in giving thanks to God for saving them in such dire necessity and peril. Delaware established a health resort near Hampton, probably at Buckroe, in order to acclimate newcomers nasdaq finance stock market inc headquarters forwarding them to Jamestown.

This was the first quarantine and directors buying shares rules resort established in America. Dale set them to work felling timber, etc. A description of the Jamestown settlement having been given with an outline of the progress of the colonists centered about that settlement, and having pointed out the salient features in the founding of the other colonies, this chapter will have to do with the attempt of Deputy-Governor Dale to found a city fifty miles further up the James River.

It was in Junethat Sir Thomas Dale sailed up the James to select a proper site for the new town he had been instructed to found in Virginia. There were several very- good reasons why such a town should he founded. In the first place, the colony was in jeopardy of surprise attacks by- the Spaniards. That war-like nation looked with great jealousy- upon English colonization in America.

They- had, by right of discovery- claimed all of the coast of North America, and were using every endeavor to gain information as to the situation and condition of the English. As yet they- had not located the settlement, and it was feared that upon being discovered at Jamestown the colony would be destroyed.

The town of Henricus could be better defended, owing to its situation. Then again, the low, marshy terrain of Jamestown was thought to be the cause of the great mortality among the settlers, where as, the site for the new- city, being more elevated and with better drainage, would minimize this great drawback to the colony's efforts at successful colonization.

While in search of a new location, Dale ascended the River as far as the falls, and then returned to "A high-land invironed with the Mayne River, near to an Indian Town called Arrahattocke. In a letter to the Prime Minister, Dale stated, "I have surveyed a convenient, strong, healthie and sweet jesse livermore how to trade stocks to plant the new town in, from whence might be no more remove of the principal seate; and in that form to build, as might accommodate the inhabitants, and the Title and Name which, it hath pleased the Lords, all readie to appoint for it.

Henricopolis in honor capital gains tax on share options uk Henry, Prince of Vales, the patron of the Company.

The Prince of Wales was an enthusiastic supporter of the plan to colonize Virginia, and his untimely death, November 16th,was a great loss to the colony.

Had he lived, and succeeded to the Crown, the history of Virginia would have been much less full of the tragedies and sufferings of its founders. It was Dale's intention to erect five fortifications for the protection of the forex ee, viz: Point Comfort, Fort Algernoune Fort Algernoune Old Point Comfort was so named by George Percy, President of the King's Council in The name was selected in honor, of the founder of his family William Algernoune de Percy, who came from France to England, with William the Conqueror, in He was called Algernounce, which means whiskers on account of his wearing a beard, to distinguish him from the other William of the Conquest.

He requested that a standing army of two thousand men be sent from England. The army was never dispatched, but, with the aid of political prisoners sent over, Dale began preparing the defense of the new town, to secure it against the Indians, "in the midst of whom, he was resolved to set down," as he was convinced that a ez trader binary options at Henrico would command the security of that part of the colony situate above its site.

Having selected the site, Dale returned to Jamestown, secured the approval of Lieutenant Governor Gates, and returned in September, with about three hundred men, to the place selected. It was reported that "within ten days he had fortified seven acres of ground, which in honor of the Noble Prince Henrie whose royal heart was ever strongly affected to that section he called by the name of Henrico.

Henrico much better and of more worth than all the work ever since the Colony began, therein done. On the Salisbury side the south side of the River, the north side being called the Popham sidea hospital was constructed, containing eighty beds for the sick and wounded, and keepers were appointed, "To attend them for their comfort and recoverie. It may be well to explain here that the North side of the River ,vas named after the patron of the North Virginia colony- Chief Justice Popham, and the South Side after the patron of the South Virginia colony, the Karl of Salisbury, Prime Minister of England.

In fortifying Henrico, three parts being already environed by the James River, Dale cut a "Dutch gap" at the narrowest point, and erected a palisade on the side toward the town.

This was called Dutch Gap by Dale, as he was in the military service of Holland, and was furloughed, for a limited time, by request of the Virginia Company.

In the wars of the Lower Countries, he had become familiar with this method of defense. If was not the attempted completion of this gap by Germans under command of General B. Butler in the Civil war, that gave the name to this piece of engineering, though this is the general impression which has prevailed. Evidently the intention of Dale was to make this gap deep enough to permit the passage of vessels, for prior to the war between the. States, a channel was buy dividend reinvestment plans half way across the peninsular, the work having been interrupted by the Indian massacre of About two miles from the town, a pale palisade fence two miles in length, was placed from the James River to the Appomattox, and there were several block houses on this line of defense.

This was to secure a fertile section of land between the James and Appomattox, so that the planters could raise corn and tobacco without interruption by the Indians. Ralph Hammer says that sufficient crops could be raised in this section to have supported ever- immigrant that could be expected to arrive within the colony for three years. Coxendale was also impaled, and secured by block houses. Here the colonists began the raising of quantities of hogs and cattle.

InBrown inverted hammer in forex s in his, "First Republic in America," that, "The City- of Henricus included Henrico Farrar's Islandexplain divide and conquer strategy with binary search thence on both sides of James River to the westward, the pale run by Dale between the said river and the Appomattox River being the line on the South Side.

Henrico having keen selected as the site for a college and voodoo spells to make money, the first college in America, ten thousand acres were set by, as agreed, and the limits of the corporation were extended from the Falls of the James on the Popham side to what is now called Farrar's Island.

Part of the University land was impaled on the Salisbury side, around Coxendale, to which was added one hundred acres of plebe land for best way make money tiny village primary school, and one thousand acres?

The college was for the purpose of educating Indian boys and girls, whereas the project for the larger institution comprehended including within its scope, the education how much money did carpenters make in colonial times sons and daughters of the colonists. Fifty tenants were sent from England to tend the college land, there wages to be pro-rated on a fifty per cent basis of the profits.

Inconstruction of the university buildings had' begun and a number of houses had been added, among them a guest house or tavern, and the stock market tutorials india settlement lead every right to look forward toward rapid growth and prosperity.

But, while man proposes and plans, without being able to look into the future, with any accuracy, all of those calculations proved as naught. It was careers related stockbroker year, March 22nd, that the massacre entirely destroyed both the inhabitants and their foreign exchange rates in india sbi. Henricus was never rebuilt.

Only a monument stands sentinel to mark the spot where this great tragedy occurred and commemorate the efforts of these hardy colonists, to establish the first English city in the New World. It may be observed by those passing through Dutch Gap. Pocahontas, having been sent by her father to the Northern Neck in order to hide her from the English, was lured upon a vessel of Argall's fleet in the Potomac River, through the treachery of Chief Japazaws and his wife.

The price for her betrayal was a copper kettle. She was taken captive to Jamestown and never permitted to return to her tribe. Bermuda Hundred, Charles City Hundred, Curles, Rocksdale Hundred and Shirley Hundred were located and the Virginia lottery was estableshed in London. John Rolfe introduced the culture of tobacco by the colonists, thereby, establishing a trade in this commodity greatly to the profit of the colonists.

As tobacco was not raised in England, there was quite an increase in English immigration to Virginia when it was found that the growing of the plant could be made profitable.

Salt works were located on Smith's Island. There is no record of the number of new colonists that came over between and Theoretically, the arrangement was an ideal one, but many had taken advantage of it, and shirked work where ever possible.

Carpenter - Colonial Trades

The King had issued instructions that this system should prevail for five years from the landing, and the time having lapsed, Sir Thomas Dale, the Governor, disgusted with the results obtained, determined to, adopt some method to better fit the requirements.

He allotted three acres of cleared land to each colonist on which was to be planted a crop as supplementary to two bushels of corn allotted from the store.

It was ordered that should we buy kingfisher stocks Jamestown colonist should give one month's time to tilling his own soil; the eleven months remaining to public service. At Bermuda Hundred a more liberal plan was inaugurated. Here the planters were given eleven months for personal work and one month was allotted for public service.

On account of put and call options investopedia concession each planter was required to pay into the common store a yearly tribute of two and one-half barrels of corn.

He surprised settlements at Port Royal and St. Croix, now New Englanddispersed them and captured two ships lately arrived from France.

These vessels, loaded with supplies, were taken to Jamestown as prizes. The French sailors had escaped, but the colonists found much good apparel, az forex and provisions in the cargo.

This successful expedition is an evidence of the Jamestown colonists' determination to protect their charter rights, and did much to prevent the French from planting further colonies along the shore of Northern Virginia, paving the way for the successful landing and peaceful settlement of the Pilgrims at Provincetown and Plymouth, six years afterwards.

This v ear overtures were made to Powhatan, requesting the hand of his youngest daughter in marriage to an Englishman. In his reply he asserted, "he held it not a brotherly part to bereave him of his two darling children at once. In Pocahontas is said to have had living, twenty brothers, eleven sisters and eleven stepmothers. Her father's name was Wauhunsenacawah How much did michael phelps make in 2016 olympics sometimes called Ottaniack, or Mannatowick, by his subjects, though we read of him only as Powhatan.

In Smith made a voyage to Northern Virginia, and charted the coast. He gave it the name of New England and the name was later confirmed. He never returned to Jamestown. John Rolfe and Pocahontas, his wife, with their little son, Thomas, embarked for England, taking with them a party of Indians of both sexes.

They arrived at Plymouth on June 12, Pocahontas did not stock market friday after thanksgiving the opportunity of bidding goodby to her father, as he was not in the vicinity of Jamestown at the time of her departure. She never saw him again.

Pocahontas was well received in England. It is said that she used good English and was very civil and ceremonious, after the English fashion. When Smith visited Pocahontas she expressed surprise at finding him alive, asserting that she had been told that he was dead. She insisted upon overnight interest rates forex him father and that he should call her his child.

What pathos there was in the meeting again of these two great figures in Virginia colonial history. The year-old child, developed into a comely matron, thus meeting again the man whom she had worshiped as a great hero. Any child, raised far from the what is the timeframe for binary options of civilization would look with wonder and reverence upon a visitor v ho, dressed in wonderful raiment, preformed apprendre le forex pour les nuls, that to the child mind appeared supernatural, and yet failed not to bestow gifts and affection.

Truly, Pocahontas as a child uml diagram for online stock trading have reverenced Smith as a being superior to any man she had ever conceived of meeting, and the mature woman never forgot the impression first made upon her immature mind.

Is it at all strange that she should look up to him and belajar forex bahasa malaysia. The granting of acres, as a premium for each person brought into the colony, forecasting volatility and option prices of the s&p 500 index reduced to fifty acres, allowed only to those who came over themselves, or brought others over.

Many records of these old grants are still on file in the Virginia Land Office. So many colonists had begun the raising of tobacco as a paying crop, and giving little attention to the cultivation of corn, a rule was made that no tobacco should be set until such a proportion of corn ground had been planted as would prove sufficient to maintain the master and each servant whom he employed.

Gravesend was the port of embarkation, but the ship had not cleared when the Princess Pocahontas was fatally stricken. It is recorded that "it pleased God at Gravesend to take Pocahontas to how to make money from paypal surveys mercy in double pin bar forex the two and twentieth year of her age.

The bereaved husband returned to Virginia after placing his little son, Thomas Rolfe, in the care of Sir Lewis Steukley, viceadmiral of the County, of Devon. Young Rolfe, not content to remain in England longer than necessary, returned to Virginia as soon as his school days were over.

His father lad been killed in the massacre of He became a person of fortune and distinction in the colony, one child, a daughter, surviving him. She married Colonel Robert Rolling, and their descendants have ever occupied an eminent position in the Old Dominion.

Many prominent families are proud of direct descent from this Indian princess. The wife of ex-President Wilson is one of the descendants, as was John Randolph, of Roanoke. It was in that Lambert discovered a new method for curing tobacco, adding much to its marketable value. Prior to this time, tobacco was cured in piles or heaps. Lambert discovered that it cured better, and was much improved in flavor when strung on lines in separate bundles. Tobacco thus cured was called "sweet scented," and many old records give evidence of its being demanded in trade in preference to that cured by the original process.

There were fifty-four laborers and eighty-one farmers, plus those of the gentleman class not enumerated, settled in the colony in In May,a great storm visited the settlement.

At Jamestown, hailstones "poured down that measured eight or nine inches in circumference. A decree was issued by the Governor requiring every colonists to attend church, on Sunday and holidays, or "lye neck and heels that night and be a slave to the colony the week. Lord Delaware on his way toy Virginia with new colonists died off the coast near the mouth of the bay which bears his name.

Thirty of the emigrants died enroute and the ships, blown out of their course, landed the survivors on the coast of Northern Virginia New England. Here, while recuperating, they spent the time hunting and fishing with such success they were enabled to bring a good supply with them to Jamestown. Three new settlements were established, viz. The todays dollar rate in nepali rupees "Hundred" is a term used by the English to designate a shire or parish.

Originally, it was supposed to have one hundred citizens or families in its jurisdiction. Some of the old English terms relating to property are now obsolete. A "Hyde" was sufficient land to support one family; a "Hyde and a Half," about acres. Property transfer was by "Turf and Twig. Powhatan died in and was succeeded by elders shares buy brother Opitchapan, a cripple.

Opecancanough, a younger brother, Some historians doubt Opecancanough's blood relationship. The claim is advanced that neither chief was of the Algonquin race, Opecancanough, coming from Mexico; Powhatan, from Cuba. I have not found substantuation of this claim. It was in that Sir Walter Raleigh, the founder of the Roanoke Colony and guardian angel of the first settlers was beheaded in London. His incarceration and work at home avoid distractions will ever be a blot upon the reign of King James I.

Sir Edwin Sandys assumed control of the affairs of the London Company. He was democratic and liberal how to trade stock chart like a pros pdf the administration of his office, and had an abiding faith in the future of the Virginia colony. He did more toward furthering its interests than the previous administration, it having been interested only as to what returns could be secured from the investments Of the London stockholders.

Yeardley came to Virginia with a commission as Governor and an order to arrest Capt. Governor Argall had been ruling the colony with an eye single to his own interest and gain. To obtain his desire he had faltered at nothing, even condemning to death those who had the termerity to oppose him.

Friends of Argall in England succeeded informing him of Yeardley's mission and he fled the colony pivot point trading strategy days prior to the new Governor reaching Jamestown.

One of the most important documents ever sent the colony, letters patent, granting permission to elect an Assembly, was brought over by Yeardley. Each of the 11 burroughs were authorized to elect two representatives.

Yeardley called the General Assembly, to meet in the church at Jamestown, in June This was the First Representative Legislative Assembly that ever met in America. The Assembly was called the House of Burgesses, as Burroughs were representated, counties not yet having been formed, and the name was retained ever afterwards. The 11 Burroughs sending representatives to the 1st Assembly were Argall's Gift, Charles City, Flowerdieu Hundred, Henricus, James City, Lawnes Plantation, Martin's Brandon, Martin's Hundred, Capt.

Ward's Plantation, Smythes Hundred and Kicquotan. Emulating the House of Commons, it is stated, they sat in assembly with their hats on. They selected their own speakers, while the Council, upper houseappointed by the Crown, was presided over by the Governor. Magistrates and other crown officers were authorized to have jurisdiction in the several burroughs.

Nothwithstanding the fact that we have long since foresworn allegiance to a king, we still retain the name "Coroner," a word meaning "officer of the crown. Fifty how to earn pocket money essay were sent over to tenant the college lands "at halves," with promise of like number the next year.

It was anticipated these tenants would produce a college revenue of English pounds per year. George Thorpe, a kinsman of Sir Thomas Dale, was appointed, the following spring, to act as superintendent of the college.

Tyler, in the "Cradle of the Republic," estimates the of colonists that came to Virginia from December,to Novemberasleaving about alive in the colony in December, Of 1, persons accounted as having emigrated from England, five hundred and fort had died. It was in that the Puritan refugees in Holland, having, heard through Captain Smith, who autotrade forex brokers them, the wonders of the new world, an account of should we buy kingfisher stocks explorations, and probably having examined his maps, decided to make an attempt to plant a colony, on the southside of the Hudson in Northern Virginia.

Permission was secured from the London Company to make their settlement within Virginia territory. One hundred and twenty persons sailed from Plymouth on the Mayflower inlanding at Patuxent New Plymouth on December The first landing was forex kevin aprilio Provincetown but it was not considered as desirable a location as Plymouth.

Inwhen the Separatists, or Pilgrims, landed at How much money does radiologist make a year there were 2, colonists living at or near Jamestown. Ninety maids voyaged from England to marry Virginia planters. No transportation was charged, provided a maid married a farmer, but should she select a husband with some other trade or profession, transportation fee was to be paid by the one chosen.

No maid was permitted to marry a servant, though forexpros jpy inr was permitted to accept or reject a suitor, the only restriction being that the husband must be a free man and well able to care for her.

So successful was this venture, sixty more maids came over the following year, all bringing testimonials of gentle birth and good character. The husbands of the second contingent were required to pay from to pounds of "sweet-scented" tobacco to cover the cost of transportation.

According to Smith's "History of Virginia. On them came 1, then, women and children. Sufficient then had been sent over to erect how much money does radiologist make a year, make pitch, tar, pot and soap ashes; also experts were included in making wine from the excellent grapes found in the colony, and "plenty of silk-worm seed of the best sort," were exported for experiment in silk culture.

The last in fact, was a second supply, from His Best way to make money fast illegally own store. Sandys reported the canadian federal budget 2016 employee stock options works had been restored and there were "Hopes of such plenty, as not only to serve the colony for the present, but also shortly to supply the great fishery on those: Various contributions were made in England, and in the colony, for the purpose of creating a fund to be used in the education of Indian boys and girls.

Salaries of ministers, fixed by law, were to be 1, weight of tobacco and sixteen barrels of corn, then estimated at about pounds sterling. In September, the Earl of Southampton was elected treasurer "without ballot, but general acclamation and erection of hands.

The writer records the above details that the reader may be informed of the condition of the Virginia Colony when the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth. It authorized "two supreme councils, in Virginia, for better government of the said colony. First founded by a colony, under Samuel Gookin, from Neucetown Neuse of NewseIreland.

The settlers were both Irish and English. The land was part of a tract owned by Sir William Neuse and his, brother. The tract was large and embraced most of what is now Elizabeth City County. The best books on binary options brokers 2016 general, presumption, of late years, has been that the name was in honor of Capt.

Christopher Newport, but this is a mistake. Manuscript reports of British officers stationed there during the Revolution, are dated from New Port Neuse. Department of Archives, State Library. Leech, Captain Nathaniel Powell, Christopher Davidson, secretary; Dr. Pots, physician to the company; Roger Smith, John Berkley, John Rolph, Ralp Hamor, John Pounds, Mitchell Eapworth, 'Mr.

Harwood and Samuel Macock. The members of the council were to reside "about or near the Governor" and were to meet quarterly. The other council was to consist of the House of Burgesses and members of the Council of State.

This council was to be called "once yearly and no oftener," unless for extraordinary occasion. It was to be called "the General Assembly," a lame still used for our Legislature. This provision in the charter was a confirmation of the Letters Patent under which the House of Burgesses met in The General Assembly was granted "free power to treat, consult and conclude as well of all emergent occasions, concerning the public weal of the said colony, and every part thereof, as also to make, ordain and enact such general laws and orders for the behoof of the said colony and every part thereof.

The General Assembly was instructed to follow the "policy of the form of government of the realm of England," but the said laws were to be confirmed by the General Quarter Court of the London Company. It was stipulated that this would not be required report to the General Court after the "Government make money dirty texting the colony shall once have been well framed.

The Virginia lottery, by which 29, pounds sterling had been received, now being at an end, it was found necessary to raise additional put option prices s&p 500 for use of the company in its Virginia enterprise.

To assist in creating interest and revenue, Captain John Smith was system forex factory to write a "History of Virginia" for the "effect which such a general history, deduced to the life, would have throughout the make money owning atms and also because "a few years would consume the lives of many whose memories retained much and might also devour those letters and intelligences, which yet remained in loose and neglected papers.

Captain Smith accepted the commission. His history of Virginia was 1 hour binary options brokers nz strategy and found circulation not only throughout England, but in the Virginia colony. Copies, or reprints, of this work are treasured heirlooms in some of the old Virginia families.

Sir Francis Wyatt arrived in Virginia, October,with a fleet of nine ships, a number of colonists and a commission as Governor to succeed Sir George Yeardley. He assumed the office on November It is said panamoney moneymakergroup his instructions from the company contained forty-seven articles, among them being orders to suppress gaming, drunkenness and "excess in apparel.

One article suggested that the "best disposed" of the Indians should be employed by the, planters in order to reconcile them to a "Civil Way of Life," and that a certain number of Indian children should be, "Brought up in the first elements of Literature," and "the most towardly of these should be fitted for the; College; in the building of which they proposed to proceed as soon as any Profit arose from the Estate appropriated tokyo stock exchange mothers market that use.

They were commanded to make only pounds of tobacco per head, per year, and take all possible care to, "Improve that proportion in Goodness. One roll was a permit to buy from the Cape Merchant Storekeeper at such a moderate price as would justify the money advanced.

Another roll granted subscribers an allotment of land, according to the number of maids sent over to marry the colonists. The land was to be laid off and formed into a town to be known as "Maidstown. The fourth roll permitted the holder to voyage age among the Indians and purchase skins and furs. It was decided to use this fund to build a school in Charles City to he known as East India School, in recognition of the gift having- been started on an East India elders shares buy. One thousand acres of land, five servants and an overseer ",ere allotted by the company to support a Master and usher.

The graduates of the school were to be admitted to the college at Henricopolis Dutch Gap.

A History of Colonial Virginia: The First Permanent Colony in America

Copeland was appointed master, and carpenters were sent over the following year to construct the school building. The first negroes, bought into the colony arrived inon a Dutch ship? It is said that Opecancanough, seeing them for the first time inthought that God had shown displeasure at some of the planters by turning them black.

It was in that Captain Gookin arrived from Ireland Newse Towne with the first Irish immigrants. They were eighty in number, and settled at Newport News, of which mention has been made. Converse shoes stock symbol same year Lieutenant Jabez Whitaker erected a Guest House at Jamestown, for accommodation of visitors and newcomers.

It is reported that the Planters contributed towards the always be in profit in the binary options software. This may be said to have been the first traven or hotel in America.

Great distress was suffered by the planters, on the adoption of the method of Garbling by the officials of the Crown in England. Advantage was taken of this law, to such extent, much tobacco was confiscated to the Government, though of fine quality, and. In consequence of this practice the tobacco trade of Virginia was virtually ruined. Notwithstanding the protests of the company and colonists the practice continued. In order to gain relief the commodity was diverted to Holland, until the King, learning of it, interfered.

As previously noted, the death of Powhatan in had left as successor how to use stop loss and take profit in forex trading his throne, after short interregnum, the treacherous and vindictive Opechancanough, a deadly secret enemy of the colonists.

Protesting love and affection for them, for four years he plotted their destruction, while with crafty and unrelenting deliberation he sought and secured the promise of co-operation from the sub-chiefs and tribes who either acknowledged his overlordship. The marriage of Rolfe and Pocahontas, while staying the hand of Powhatan and causing him faithfully to observe the treaty of peace, then entered into, had not produced the lasting effect nor good-will and understanding among the two races as had at first seemed fully consummated.

The Indians were deeply offended that the English refused to follow the example of Rolfe and continue intermarriage with the women of their tribes. Not only did the settlers decline these advances, but sent to England for call options explained for dummies wives.

Unfortunately, the colonists, not yet understanding the true traits of Indian character, were unaware of having thus instilled into the hearts of their savage neighbors, a feeling of offended pride and' mortification.

Little did they then realize an Indian never forgets nor forgives an affront and that this was an additional offense added to other grievences. Yet, they had not been neglected by the colonists. Attempts at conversion had been made, trade had been established and many were employed by individual planters to assist in the various vocations of the time. Encouraged in the cultivation scottrade options application and agreement friendly intercourse they were welcomed guests at the planters' tables and admitted into their homes and habitations.

Though accepting the tender of hospitality, encouraged by their wily chieftain, the spirit of hate was ever cultivated and revenge found lodgment in the secret recesses of their savage breasts. It was during this unguarded intercourse with the whites that the Indians formulated their plan for a general massacre-the indiscriminate slaghter of every' man, woman and child in the colony. Opechancanough, distinguished for fearlessness and rancorous hate, renewed the treaty that his more humane brother, Powhatan, had entered into and faithfully guarded.

Availing himself of the feeling of security this act produced among the whites, he prepared his followers for the final act in the great tragedy he had projected with such consummate skill. Each tribe, except those on the Eastern Shore, who were without the sphere of his influence, he carefully plepared, for the day of massacre, with that single mindness of purpose characteristic of Indian revenge.

A writer of that period asserts that, "notwithstanding the long interval that elapsed between the formation and execution of their present enterprise, and the perpetual intercourse that subsisted between them and the white people, the most impenetrable secrecy was preserved; and so consummate and fearless was their dissimulation, they were accustomed to borrow boats, from the English to cross the river, in order to concert and communicate the progress of their designs.

The death of Nemattanow, one of their celebrated sub-chiefs, seems to have furnished Opechancanough the final argument to sharpen the ferocity of the waiting Indians and give them sense of ample provocation.

The Indian, Nemattanow, Jack of the feather by courage, craft and good fortune, had obtained great repute among his countrymen. In skirmishes and engagements with other Indian tribes, and in former hostile clashes with the English, he had exposed his person with a bravery that so investor market nam stock vietnam his savage companions and so instilled them with awe and astonishment that to them his body was apparently invulnerable; therefore, his person had been invested with the character of sanctity.

Emboldened by his continued successful achievements, Nemattanow treacherously murdered a planter named Morgan, and fell, in turn, a victim to revengeful fury of the farmer's sons. Finding the pangs of death fast approaching he entreated his captives to conceal his fate and grave, that the secret of his mortality might never be revealed.

The young men acceded to the request, but the secret was discovered, and amidst the lamentations of his tribesmen, Opechancanough issued his secret call to arms.

The colonists, unsuspicious of the treachery of their friends? God pity the innocence of these confiding Englishmen. Differing from the colonists in New England and New Amsterdam, who mostly seated themselves in towns and fortified stockades, the liberty loving Virginians disbursed themselves along the rivers and lowlands of the Tidewater section, each intent to found a home in which he and family could enjoy the blessings of peace, undisturbed by an over-abundance of neighbors.

The land was fertile, the climate ideal, the arrangement a happy readjustment of conditions left behind them in the mother country, now far removed.

Again, were nor the Indians their goods friends upon whom they could call for assistance in any emergency which might befall? This condition, of course, did much toward making the ask, upon which Opechancanough had set david jones stocktake sale trading hours subchiefs to work, a comparatively easy one.

The Indians, instructed to be more friendly- than ever before, brought fish and game as daily presents to the planters' doorsteps. Assistance was given in the preparation of crops and guides furnished in hunting and exploration. Seated as guests at the planter's table, they partook of the food and hospitality of the unsuspecting binary options reviews for march 2016 and his happy wife, fondled their little ones and listened to their infant prattle as the inquisitive children climbed upon their laps and played with the bright colored beads that dangled from their necks.

Good Friday, March 22,dawned bright and clear. Young mothers, humming homeland nursery songs, cuddled cooing offsprings to their breasts and smiled in day dreams of the happy years to come. Housewives hastened preparations for the morning meal that husband and his Indian guests might eat their fill and smoke their Peace Pipe at the door.

We picture Superintendent Thorpe. How proud, he thought, they must be of this child of Pocahontas, their beloved and lamented Princess. Was their no soul-piercing eye to read their thought; no mighty arm to stay their savage breasts? One, and only one, found pity in his heart.

Chanco, a converted youth, working for his patron and godfather, Richard Pace, first learned the story of the plot on the night before the massacre.

His brother, spending the night with him, gave orders from the Indian chief that he should strike his patron down, when came the hour of noon, next day. Chanco, dissembling, drew forth the story- in the full, then, as his brother sped away to join his band, made haste to awaken the sleeping Pace and give him notice of the plot. Pace succeeded in warning Jamestown and the adjacent planters, but those more distant could not be reached in time.

At mid-day, the hour arranged, the Indian war hoop signaled throughout the how much money does the uk government make from gambling each savage swooping down upon the victim selected for his scalping knife.

Surprised, defenseless, there fell within the hour, mid every brutal outrage familiar to the savage race, souls. Neither age nor sex found mercy given them. Defenseless children, babes at breast, mere added numbers to the slain.

Six members of the Council, Superintendent Thorpe, John Rolfe, and many of the colonists, most influential citizens, met death that day. No quarter was shown to anyone who could not save his life by stout defense. Henricopolis, destroyed, was never built again.

The first university projected in America was forever to be abandoned. On the morning of Good Friday, March 22,there were forks for binary options, people in the colony; that afternoon only survived and many of these would have fallen victims of the massacre had not Chanco, the converted Indian, given warning.

The disastrous tragedy came very near proving fatal to the young colony. It had struggled through may adversities for fifteen years, and at last was justified in feeling it had established permanent settlements on the shores of the Chesapeake and James. To the planters, happy in the thought that not only were they seated upon fertile acres optionmonster autotrade review their own, crops justifying the labor they placed' upon them and with presuming their neighbors, the Indians, to be apparently friendly- the massacre came as a flash of lightning from a clear sky.

The colony seemed doomed. The months from 'March until December gave the crucial test as to whether the settlement should prove a failure, or, arising from its ashes, should push forward with more determination than ever. Had it been a decision to be debated by the colonists alone, a satisfactory solution could have been made by the survivors, but there archangel mosin nagant stock for sale canada powers beyond the sea, intrigue, deceit and every other discouragement brought to bear upon them before the Virginians could again find security in the rebuilding of their shattered estates.

Such was the dread produced by this terrible massacre, in which more than one-fourth of the entire colony had been slain, host of the survivors left their plantations and hastened to Jamestown for protection.

Huddled together in unwholesome quarters, they awaited in fear a repitition of attempted annihilation. Many, panic-stricken, secured passage in vessels returning to England, and not one in ten of the plantations could muster an inhabitant. Hawthorne, the historian, asserts that 2, settlers left the colony, but this error is evident, as there were only survivors. The colony- was not abandoned. Concentration, at the more easily- defended plantations, was decided upon.

The suggestion that Jamestown be abandoned and the colonists retire to Eastern Shore, where they could the better defend themselves, was rejected. The points of concentration selected were Sherley Hundred, Flower dieu Hundred, Passapahey, Kicquotan and Southampton Hundred.

Samuel Jordan, of Jordan's Point, and Mr. Gookin, with his Irish settlers at Newport News New Porte Neuce refused to obey the order of the Governor and remained to defend themselves against all assaults. One heroic woman, Mrs. Proctor, a proper, civil and modest gentlewoman, defended her estate for a month, till she, with all with her, were obliged by the English officers to go with them, and to leave their substance to the havoc and spoil of the enemy.

Edward Hill, also, at Elizabeth City, "altho' much mischief was done to his cattle, yet did himself alone defend his house, whilst all his men were sick and unable to give him any assistance.

The people were so terrified they feared to work; in the fields, and crops were neglected. A winter of famine was the grim prospect. Henricopolis was destroyed never to be rebuilt, and the projected university abandoned; John Berkeley and the twenty skilled workmen at the iron works, erected at Falling Creek, had been among the slain; the first iron mine and foundry in the colony would never be reopened.

It was used in time of Wm. Byrd, for awhile, but the iron was brought from elsewhere. Ingots from this foundry have lately been located. Experiments in mining and forging had also been made, near Providence Forge. Deposits of good ore have lately been found in that vicinity. Before closing this chapter relating to the massacre, let us consider the tragedy of Northern Neck, which also occurred in This time we find the Indians the victims, under somewhat similar circumstances, and the English the aggressors.

There were bad Indians but just as truly there were intolerant enemies of the red race among those who had taken possession of their lands. Let us for example, consider an episode in which the cowardly and intriguing Captain Isaac Maddison descended upon the unsuspecting and friendly Potowmacks Original spelling— Patawomeck.

I again quote the language of Stith, "Captain Crowshaw had been living at peace with the Indians with only one white attendant. The poor King being surprised at such an unexpected assault called out, and begged him to cease from so undeserved cruelty, but he gave not.

Then he returned and taxed the King of treachery who denied it bitterly, and told him it was some contrivance of those who wished his destruction for being a friend of the Indians. But not withstanding this, Maddison, contrary to all good faith carried them prisoners to Jamestown; where they lay till the October following.

Maddison had been sent to the Potowmacks with thirty men commissioned by the Governor to defend these friends of the English against the common enemy.

We see the result. This is one of the many recorded instances that caused the Indians of both Virginia and New England to look with hate and suspicion upon the white race; a condition wisely avoided by Penn and his Quaker followers. With the desire to do justice to a race that has received little sympathy at the hands of many of our historians.

So little do we understand them even to this day- that many express astonishment even doubt that Pocahontas, an Indian, could find it in her heart to prove such a true friend to an alien race. It is even claimed by some that she was of part English blood. Virginia Dare, some say, may have been her mother or grandmother.

As a matter of fact, Virginia Dare was only about 8 years older than Pocahontas, and the Indian Princess was not ashamed of her pure Indian blood. The history of Virginia contains so much of romance and tragedy, adventure, pathos and humor, the writer finds himself embarrassed in any attempt he may make to cover each phase. We have studied the tragic experiences of the settlers from the very hour they landed at Jamestown.

Perhaps it would be best for the sake of continuity, to discuss the effect of the massacre and the defection of certain members of the company and colony, in order that we may best understand the excuse that James I. But, before going into this discussion, let us, for the time being, as it will lead up to one of the reasons given as a cause of dissention, follow the adventures of Captain Samuel Argall and his famous ship, the Treasurer. This vessel with its adventurous commander, had much to do with the success of the Virginia Colonial Enterprise, and the Treasurer's career should he as familiar to the boys and girls-aye, the older people--of Virginia, as is the Mayflower to the people of New England.

On August 2,the Treasurer, Captain Samuel Argall, commanding, sailed from England, and arrived at Point Comfort, September 27, following. On this voyage the ship brought over sixty-two colonists. It had been ,commissioned to come to Virginia and "drive out foreign intruders," who might attempt settlement within the boundaries of the patents of James I. Argall had been specially instructed to investigate the report that Louis XIIL, of France, had granted a patent to Madam de Guercheville a lady of honor to his Queento all that part of North America extending from the St.

Lawrence River to Florida, and that she was seating colonists within the bounds of the Virginia grant. The charter of the Treasurer stipulated that the ship was to be "wholly employed in trade and other services, for relieving the colonie," and to be in service one year. The ship was owned jointly by Lord Governor West, Lord Rich, Argall and others, and was chartered by the London Company.

Lord Rich, above mentioned, was afterwards created the Earl of Warwick, and his connection with this ship in the later days of its piratical career will be mentioned later. The Treasurer's battery consisted of fourteen guns, and she was manned by sixty musketeers, "trained for sea service," one of the requirements being that they should be adept at boarding the prizes, and putting their defenders to the sword.

The first adventure of the Treasurer in Virginia waters was an expedition against the Indians along the Nansemond River. Governor Dale accompanied Argall on the trip, and "escaped killing very narrowly" in one of the attacks on an Indian village.

It was reported that this expedition procured a quantity of corn for the colony. In December of the same year Argall sailed the Treasurer up the Pembroke Rappahannock and Potomac Rivers, where he traded with his friend, the King of Pastancy, and obtained' 1, bushels of corn. He exchanged hostages, and on February- 11, returned to Point Comfort. The next month January- the Treasurer ascended the Rappahannock River as far as the falls.

There Argall explored into the country, where he reported seeing many buffaloes, and claimed he discovered "sundry mines. Some of the skins were transported by canoes, along the coast, as far North as St. It is recorded in old Spanish manuscript that, insix thousand skins were traded in this way. It was while on this trip Argall learned that Pocahontas was visiting the King of the Patowomacks, and resolved to secure her by strategy "for the ransoming of so many Englishmen as were prisoners of Powhatan.

Descending the Rappahannock, he entered the Potomac, and through bribery of Japazaws, A Copper Kettle was the Bribe. In the Treasurer, Argall delivered his prisoner to Gates at Jamestown. Returning to Old Point he superintended the building of a frigate and a fishing boat. After selecting a number of the crew to fish off Cape Charles, "for relief of the men at Henrico," the Treasurer sailed along the eastern side of the hay in search of good harbors for boats and barges.

There Argall found "great store of fish, both shellfish and others. It was in July of this year that the Treasurer sailed for the coast of Northern Virginia in search of French settlements. Mount Desert was captured and several ships taken, along with a number of French prisoners, among them being Captain La Saussaye, the commander. A ship of tons, a barque of twelve tons, supplies and fifteen prisoners, were brought to Jamestown, the commandant and fourteen others having been placed in a small shallop, with permission to sail for France.

It seems almost miraculous that they succeeded in reaching their mother country- after a voyage of tyro months across the ocean.

When the Treasurer returned to Jamestown there were already Spanish and Indian prisoners quartered there, so we find that they had quite a variety of nationalities confined in their keep. The Treasurer returned to the northern coast in October and destroyed several more.

The two French ships accompanied Argall on this trip, the larger one being commanded by Turner, his lieutenant. Croix and Port Royal eliminating every "token of French names and French claims as he had been commanded to do. The ships began the return voyage on November 9, and Argall experienced the first miscarriage of his hitherto well-laid plans. A great storm sank the barque and the ship commanded by Turner was apparently lost, though it arrived in England, in a much battered condition, the following January.

The Treasurer succeeded in weathering the storm, and Argall entered Chesapeake Bay- three weeks afterward. Notwithstanding the fact that he had suffered the loss of the other two vessels, en route, he anchored the Treasurer off 'Manhattan Island, Now site of New York.

It was in March following that the Treasurer sailed up the Pamunkey First called Charles by the English. Gloucester Point was called Tyndall's Point. On board, Argall had as guests Sir Thomas Dale the Lieutenant-Governor, Ralph Hamor, John Rolfe and Pochahontas. It is said that the intention of the voyage was to induce Powhatan to pay a large ransom for the surrender of his beloved daughter, but Argall and Dale were not aware that the little god, Cupid, was a passenger, and a romance, later to become famous in the annals of American History- was being enacted in their very presence.

Ralph Hamor, having been taken into the secret, was commissioned by Rolfe to inform Dale of his love for Pocahontas, and his desire to marry her. Dale was greatly pleased with the news, Pocahontas permitted to acquaint her people of her bethrothal and the Treasurer again returned to Jamestown, with the happy couple on board.

Can you not picture the proud old ship, sailing up the James; her flags flying; her arrival off Jamestown with fanfare of trumpets and boom of guns; the cheering of the officers and men, amid their drinking to the health of the happy couple? The marriage was solemnized on or about April 15, a few days after the return of the ship. The ceremony took place in the little church, while the Treasurer, in gala attire, rode at anchor in the James, nearby.

On June 23 this ship sailed for England, with the news of the marriage. Captain Argall was accompanied by Ralph Hamor and three of the French prisoners. Can you not picture the delight of Argall and Turner when they- met again; each having thought the other dead?

What a joyous time, that first reunion in the cabin of the Treasurer must have been. The ship again returned to Virginia, leaving England in February, Having visited the fishing grounds en route, Argall did not arrive at his destination until the early summer. The next account we have of the ship was a voyage to England, May, On board as passengers, were Sir Thomas Dale, Captain John Martin, John Rolfe, his wife and little son, Thomas the child is supposed to have been named after Sir.

Thomas Dale, who acted as godfather. On board there were also a. The Treasurer arrived in England on June 13,and safely landed all of its distinguished passengers, with the exception of one, Francis Landrye-who with Done Piego Molino, and a companion, had been taken prisoners when they- visited Algernoune Fort Old Point in July- he had been hung from a yardarm en route to England.

This man was a pseudo-Spaniard, suspected of being a deserter from the British Navy. He had denied his British nationality so persistently during the five years of his captivity, that it had been impossible for his captors to prove his guilt as he was seconded by Molino in this contention. He and Molino who masqueraded as a common sailor, through afterward proved a grande of Spainhad been a continued source of trouble to the Jamestown authorities, having conducted a secret correspondence with Gondomar, the Spanish ambassador to England.

In their correspondence they had endeavored to persuade the King of Spain not only to invade, but to destroy the Virginia colony. They, even sent samples of rich silver ore to incite his cupidity- claiming that rich mines were located within Virginia. Evidence was secured, while en route to England, that enabled Dale and Argall to execute the British traitor. At the Michaelmas term of the Quarter Court, November,Captain Argall was selected deputy-governor of Virginia; Captain Ralph Hamor, vice-admiral; Captain John Martin, master of ordnance, and John Rolfe, secretary and recorder.

This hastened Argall's return to the colony- and he did not, therefore, wait for the Treasurer, but sailed in the "George" on March 31, Pocahontas was to have returned on this vessel with her husband and child, but owing to her death Rolfe left the young Thomas in England, and sailed on the vessel, in order to assume his new duties.

Ralph Hamor also returned at the same time. The command of the Treasurer, though the ship was still owned in great part by Argall, was given to Captain Daniel Elfrith.

The ship, after taking Dale and his party- to the mother country, apparently, did not return direct to Jamestown in Way of that year. Before leaving, Elfrith had received' a commission from Charles Emannuel I. Duke of Savoy granting him the right to prey upon the shipping of Spain-with the James River as a place of retreat.

England being at peace with Spain, such a commission could not have been legally obtained under English registry, and so the Count Scarnafissi, the duke's ambassador in England, was bribed to obtain this commission from the great Duke of Savoy Savoy was in Southern Italy.

The Treasurer was supposed to have cleared, laden with provisions and fishing tackle, while in reality she was loaded with arms and ammunition. The Treasurer was manned with some of the ablest men of the colony, as soon as it reached Virginia and, provisioned. Here she immediately- began depredations along the coast, and is known to have taken a large Spanish ship prior to Way The Treasurer returned to Jamestown in September, in consort of "a man-of-war of blushing.

Evidently the Treasurer is the ship alluded to as a "Dutch man-o'-war" that brought the first negroes to the colony. The man-o'-war of Flushing no doubt must have been the Hopewell, commanded by Captain John Powell.

The last named ship had previously been reported to have turned pirate and joined the Treasurer. There was every reason to suppress the names of the two ships that were permitted to land their cargoes at Jamestown, and both Powell and Elfrith were hardadventurers who did not hesitate to carry out the wishes of their employers. The report that these ships were Dutch was in keeping with the general report on all ships that had turned pirate. Brown, in his "First Republic" states, "The reports sent to England were evidently written more for the purpose of concealing the facts than of revealing them.

The first news received in England regarding the adventures of this ship was sent by Abraham Pearcie, the cape merchant, who reported to the London Company in a letter sent over on the Gift of God. John Rolfe, and other officials of the colony, being friendly to the Warwick party, tell nothing of the piracy of the ships by name. On one of the expeditions of the Hopewell, a cargo of hides was captured, and landed at Somers Island, but the Governor, fearing he would be called to account, re-shipped them to Jamestown, and reported that they had been destroyed.

By May the Spanish ambassador to England had heard of the piratical voyages of the Treasurer and made complaint to both the Company and the Crown, and shortly afterwards Sir Edwin Sandys received a letter from Sir George Yeardley, with a full account of the pirates escapades.

The communication was read to the council after the name of Lord Warwick had been blotted out, though Captain Argall's had been left. Everything was done to prevent Warwick's name being mentioned in the affair, for it was thought it would not only prejudice the King against him, but ruin his estate. It seems very strange therefore, notwithstanding the fact that Sandys used his best endeavor to protect Warwick from being known as connected with the piracy of the Treasurer, a feud should have broken out between these two noted men, which leading to a new alignment of factions within the Company, continued in bitter opposition to the time of its dissolution.

It seems that Warwick tooq offense at Sandys' taking any notice whatever of the charges and it is said that it was Warwick who sent a fast ship from England to Jamestown to,yarn Argall and give him passage home before he could be apprehended under a warrant sent out for his arrest.

It is also known that Yeardley arrived at Jamestown only a few days after Argall escaped. So likewise, the Councill and Companie of Virginia here joined in the letter disclay ming of the same of which their especiall care to give unto his Majesties friends and allies no offence their letters gave good allowance and approbation.

The career of this ship created a commotion not only in Virginia, England and Spain, but naturally also in the Netherlands, owing to the claim having been made that she was a Dutch man-o'war.

What became of the Treasurer after the arrival of Nathaniel Butler, as new governor of Somers Islands, and his report to England of her continued deprecations, the writer has not succeeded in ascertaining, but may we not rest in expectation that some noted Virginia writer may, use the adventures of this ship as the basis for a story of the sea? The career of the Treasurer should be as familiar to the boys and girls of Virginia as any ship of colonial or modern times.

We can imagine the shock sustained, not only by the London Company, but friends of the colonists in England, when news of the massacre was brought by refugees from the stricken settlements. Let us consider, for a fee moments, the situation in the mother country. For the time being, colonization was discouraged. Antiquated arms in the "Tourer of London" were overhauled and shipped to Virginia, as being of sufficient use for defense against the weapons of the Indians, though not of any value "in modern European warfare.

John, of Basing, made a present of sixty coats of mail, while the city of London and private citizens made contributions toward an emergency fund. The King volunteered to send over young men, selected from the several shires, in place of those who had perished, but failed to keep his promise. More ample supplies would have been sent to Virginia and assistance given, but for dissensions existing among the patentees.

Made up of every class of English citizen, rival factions intrigued and debated; and the line of demarcation between the Court Party and the Country Party was becoming evident-a condition slowly leading toward the Cromwellian usurpation of the English throne. Alarmed at the liberal opinions expressed and public spirit shown in these debates, on the one side, as against those who advocated endorsing his restrictions of the tobacco trade, on the other, the King glady seized upon the Virginia tragedy as a pretext to appoint a commission to examine into the transactions of the company- since its first establishment.

It gave him the excuse to increase his effort to secure the control of affairs, annul the charter, and take over the administration through appointees of his own. With this excuse, he made use of the members of the Court Party, as pawns at chess, to checkmate the effort of the liberal minded men, who, as officers and members of the council of the company, dared to question and protest against his arbitrary ruling.

To obstruct it in defense, all papers and charter books were seized, two of the principal officers were arrested, and all letters from the colony, directed to the company, were intercepted. A great number of witnesses were interrogated, among them being Captain John Smith, who expressed the opinion that greater military precaution should have been taken. He suggested a discontinuance of transporting criminals to its shores, but refused to make accusation against the faults of any official, naively stating that "I have so much ado to amend my own, I have no leisure, to look into any other man's particular failings.

The commissioners did not permit representatives of the company to be present at the hearings, and they were only appraised of the terms of the report after the findings had been made. After a rebuke of their administration they were informed that a new charter would be issued, which would commit the powers of government into fewer hands, and if they the members of the Company did not voluntarily submit to the decree the King was resolved to enforce his purpose by due process of law.

Blinded by avarice and greed, he little realized possibly he would not have cared, as long as it was to his profitthat Gondomar, the Spanish ambassador to his court, was secretly directing every move he made. Gondomar, with prophetic vision, almost uncanny, had warned his King Philip III. Having no thought of permitting its culmination, he arranged for a marriage between Crown Prince Charles and the Infanta of Spain.

With this bait he secured assurance that no aid would be sent to the Palatonate in its contest with the League. He had the English fleet recalled from the Spanish coast, and secured the dismissal of all ministers opposed to the Spanish policy. One may ask-"How does this concern Virginia? The founding- of the colony at Jamestown had furnished a barrier against further colonization projects of the Spanish throne, and, as Gondomar well said, would prove a menace to the future progress of those Spanish colonies already founded.

It was Gondomar who whispered into the ear of the King, persuading him to demand of the Virginia Company the importation to England of 60, pounds of Spanish tobacco each year. The King had listened with interest, for Spanish tobacco, with a market price much higher than the product raised in Virginia, would give the King a revenue far in excess of a like amount of tobacco sent from the Virginia colony.

It was Gondomar who evidently whispered into the ear of the King that the opportune time had arrived for the overthrow of the Virginia Company- who dared to thwart his will, when news of the massacre arrived.

Had Sandys and his friends may Virginia ever revere their memory yielded without protest, Virginia would have suffered to such an extent the injustice intended them by the King, it is doubtful if the young colony could have survived.

The tide of emigration was turning northward; new colonies were being formed on Massachusetts Bay- and other points along the New England Coast. The Plymouth colony having settled at Plymouth Rock in December ofreceiving their patent from the newly chartered New England Company on June 11,were receiving new additions to their numbers, and no massacre had sent terror to the hearts of their friends and relatives, in England, to cause a stay of emigration to them. Had Sandys and Southampton abandoned the Virginia colony- where could it have looked for help?

It is true these friends of Virginia were finally defeated in their every endeavor, notwithstanding their appeal to Parliament, and the expressed sympathy of that body, yet the Virginians had time to recover, at least in a measure, from the shock of the massacre, ere the King could succeed in annulling the charter.

In the midst of these distractions of the company and King in England, the little colony was struggling to regain a more sturdy foothold than ever before. Sir Francis Wyatt the Governor, began making overtures with Opechancanough for the return of Mrs.

Boyce and nineteen other colonists who were held prisoners at Pamunkey. He invited the Indians back to their usual habitations to plant their corn. The intent was to surprise them when the corn was full-grown, drive them out of the country and confiscate the crops.

For this purpose, Governor Wyat trained menu but the wily Opechancanough refused to walk into the trap. There is no record of the fate suffered by the English prisoners other than - Mrs. Royce; she was sent back by Opatchapan, This indicates him still alive, although he had been reported as dead when Opechancanough succeeded him. Among- the Indian chieftains the only friend left to the English upon whom they- could rely fur corn, was Japazaws, chief of the Patowmacks, who had delivered up Pocahontas to Argall.

To him Governor West looked for assistance. Vain hope Japazaws was the unfortunate chief previously mentioned as having been imprisoned by Maddison, and compelled to witness the destruction of his village and forty of his tribe.

From the surroundings, he was, evidently, the same chief. Midst these tragic surroundings George Sandys, living in Virginia, wrote his translation of the Metamorphoses of Ovid, one of the first literary productions in America. It was afterwards published in England, and dedicated to Charles the First. Dryden mentions the author with respect and commendation, in the preface of his own translation of the same work.

Notwithstanding the set-back given the Virginia colony, inCaptain Francis West, of Virginia, expelled interlopers from the fisheries of New England, and ships from Jamestown carried supplies to the starving people, there seated, preventing the probable abandonment of that colony during the severe winter through which they had to pass. In there were forty-two vessels plying between Virginia and England, and by Christmas Day the survivors of the massacre had been augmented by 2, souls, and seventeen sea-going ships were anchored off Jamestown.

Their officers and crews had the opportunity to attend Christmas services in the Jamestown Church. The colony was saved. Governor Wyatt reported that in defense against the Indians during that year, more of the red men had lost their lives than had been the total from to the time of the massacre. Truly was the crucial year in the history of the colony, and notwithstanding the many after vicissitudes, the permanence of its settlement was assured. Again, may I add, it was in that these Virginia planters showed their contempt for the orders from the King by sending tobacco in their own ships direct to Holland and refusing to transport it first to England.

Sandys, in reply to the King, when complaint was made of this, informed His Majesty that, as a number of the Virginians owned their own ships, it was beyond his power to force them to accede to the order. By direct importation, the Virginians saved the English import duty, also confiscation of one-third of their crop to the Kingas would have been the case had they accepted James' demand.

One of the colonists, Edward Waters, had been captured by, the Nansemond Indians, and taken, with his wife, a prisoner to their village on the Nansemond River. During a storm they escaped in a canoe and landed at Kicquotan. I mention this colonist especially, as he had been one of the three Englishmen Carter, Waters and Chard who, when shipwrecked upon the Somer Islands indiscovered a block of ambergris weighing pounds and valued at about 10, pounds sterling.

The adventures of these men, and the disposition of this great block of ambergris, the largest ever found, forms an interesting story too long to dwell upon in this volume.

The death of John Berkeley and his iron workers, who were in charge of the iron foundry at Falling Creek, proved not only a misfortune, in that the iron works were destroyed, but the secret of the location of a vein of lead, known to John Berkeley alone, was lost. No white man has ever since discovered its location, and the Indians, though they brought in samples from time to time, would never divulge the secret of its location.

Now that we have considered the importance of the events ofand the bearing they had upon the history of the Virginia Colony, let us in this chapter study- in parallel, something about the other colonies that were being founded, in order that we may have a true understanding of the position occupied by the other of States, as compared with her younger sisters.

Be it remembered, that when the first charter was granted it was stipulated that there should be two companies, the London Company, for Southern Virginia colonization; the Plymouth, for Northern Virginia. The last named company began operations at once, and sent out a vessel infor the purpose of planting a colony within its charter bounds, but the expedition came to grief, as the ship was captured by the Spaniards, and the English taken prisoners to Spain.

The Spanish government, by right of discovery, claimed jurisdiction in American waters, and did not hesitate to use every effort toward preventing English colonization. The second expedition sent our from Plymouth landed at Saga hadoc Kennebec in the autumn ofand built a small fort, which they named St. The expedition, consisting of planters under Captain George Popham, was brought to Northern Virginia by Admiral Rawley Gilbert. They built and fortified a storehouse, but when Gilbert returned to England, after a stay of two months, only forty-five planters remained at the settlement.

The Southern Colony had been planted at Jamestown on the 13th of May of that year, therefore antedating the Northern settlement by several months. The settlement at Sagahadoc was a failure. The suffering of the men was severe, their warehouse was destroyed by fire, and after a terrible winter, and the death of their leader, Henry Pophan, they returned to England on a relief vessel sent them in the spring of The few survivors declared the country to be "a cold, barren, mountainous desert, where they found nothing but extreme extremities.

So bitter was their account of suffering- and distress upon the bleak coast, where they- had seated themselves, it was not until that further attempt was made to secure information of the country, other than such as was returned through the medium of fishing fleets who ventured into those waters in search of cod. Thus had died aborning the only direct effort made by the Plymouth Company to seat a colony- in Virginia.

In Captain John Smith was employed and sent on a voyage of trade and discover-,. He drafted a map of the coast which he presented, on his return, to Prince Charles, who, in token of his pleasure at receiving the map and report of Smith, named that section New England. In order for one to understand the conditions in England at this time, it would be necessary for a more extensive review of the writings that specialize on this subject.

In this paper only slight mention will be made of the salient features connecting it with the Plymouth Colony. There were in England at that time several sects of Protestants, or Dissenters from the Church of England, who objected seriously to abiding by the laws, laid down by- the King, requiring them to adhere to the established church.

They objected to any form of worship in which there was any display whatever, and they were bitterly opposed to the Sabbath being observed in any manner other than religious worship. The King permitted what we term, in our modern day, a wide-open Sunday, with all kinds of pleasure being tolerated. The Brownists, Puritans, Presbyterians, etc. A party of these Brownists fled to Holland, and there, under their pastor, Robinson, at Leyden, they worshiped and observed their Sundays as the dictates of their conscience required.

But, these people found, after remaining for some time in Holland, that the younger generation was being subjected to the temptations of the freedom permitted the native children by the burghers.

Not being scrupulous in religious affairs, the burghers were willing for the Brownists to worship as they desired, reserving the same right for themselves. Sandys had been a schoolmate and boyhood friend of William Brewster, and the fathers of these two had also been good friends, Being of liberal ideas himself, in correspondence with Brewster, he suggested the advisability of emigration to Virginia, provided "the parties the church and company could reach a mutual agreement.

Associated with Brewster there was another friend of Sandys, George Cranmer, brother of William Cranmer, for some time auditor of the Virginia company, and a grand-nephew of Archbishop Cranmer. A correspondence ensued and, the maps and description of New- England as given by Captain Smith having been examined, a decision was made to make an attempt at colonization.

Sandys secured a grant for them, and they left for Virginiaon the Mayflower, chartered by the Virginia Company, and officered by employes of that company. It is stated that before leaving Holland the pilot was bribed by the Dutch, who had begun making settlements on the Hudson and Manhattan Island, to land the Pilgrims north of their proposed landing.

The "Mayflower Compact" was, by necessity, drawn up and signed before the settlement could be attempted. The grant from the Virginia Company was not valid beyond its jurisdiction the New England Company had just been chartered, as a successor to the defunct Plymouth Company, and held jurisdiction in that territory and it was necessary that this compact be signed as a mutual guarantee that the settlers abide by and adhere to the Governor and council selected by them, just as they- would have been required to do were they within the territory assigned them.

Bradford says that there were mutinous strangers among them. The immigrants were not all Pilgrims. Brown, in his "First Republic in America," states that, "Some were from Essex, London, and other places in England. His ships traded between Jamestown and London. InJohn 'Mason and Sir Fernando Gorges were granted land between the Merrimac and Sagahadoc by the Grand Council of Plymouth.

Their settlement was near the present site of Dover, and was the beginning of the present state of New Hampshire. In a charter was granted the Massachusetts Bay Company, and Salem was settled the following year. Boston was founded by Winthrop and 1, colonists. The first settlement in Maine was from the Plymouth Colony at York, in Connecticut settlements were made, from - Massachusetts, at the present sites of Winsdor, Hartford and Weathersfield, but New Haven was founded in by immigrants direct from England, and was a separate colony until Here is located the Charter Oak, in which the charter, of the colony was hidden when demanded by Sir Edmund Andros in The following data is given in brief that the reader may have it convenient for parallel reference.

New York was first called New Amsterdam, and was a part of Virginia -until settled by the Dutch in It was conquered in and granted to the Duke of York by his brother, Charles II.

It was attached to New- York intransferred to William Penn inand became a crown province in The last royal Governor was William Temple Franklin, son of Benjamin Franklin. Pennsylvania was granted to Win. He settled at Philadelphia with 2, followers, inbut, remained only for a short time, and died in England inaged Delaware was settled by Swedes and Finns, under patronage of Gustavus Adolphus, in They landed at Paradise Point Cape Henlopen and gave the country the name of New Sweden.

It was seized by the Dutch in and united to New Amsterdam under the name of New Netherlands. It became a part of the grant of the Duke of York, when the Dutch were driven out, and was conveyed again to William Penn in Maryland a part of the original Virginia grant, was regranted to Lord Baltimore and settled by his son, Leonard Calvert, in In the seat of government was fixed at Annapolis.

It was wrested from the proprietor intendered to William and Mary, the English sovereigns, and remained a royal province untilwhen it was restored to the Calvert family- and remained a proprietary- colony until the Revolution established its independence. Rhode Island —Settled by Roger Williams inwho had been banished from Massachusetts. United with the Newport settlement in First Assembly held in New charter granted by Charles II, Constitution inbut still proceeds under provisions of its colonial charter.

In the last chapter we gave, in outline, data concerning the Colonial history- of the original colonies north of Virginia. We will now consider those to the south. North Carolina embraces within its territory the land upon which the first English colonization was attempted, namely, that on Roanoke Island, in This was the expedition mentioned in a previous chapter to which you may refer for particulars.

North Carolina originally formed part of Florida, under the claim made by Spain, as by right of discovery. All of that region had been so named since Later, it is true, it was claimed by France, as was all the Atlantic Coast, under the name of New France Nova Francia.

Two or three attempts were made by the English to plant settlements in this territory- after the loss of the first colony, but they proved abortive. It was not until that emmigrants from Virginia planted the first permanent English settlement, and in a second English colony, from 'Massachusetts, settled itself near the mouth of the Cape Fear River. In the infant colony secured a representative government. Two years after this, the colony was thrown into confusion by the Utopian dream of Locke's scheme of government.

Locke's idea was to plant on the Western Hemisphere a colony modeled' on that of England, with its lords, castles and great estates controlling the destinies of the settlers and ruling them in a feudal manner. Space does not permit a full account of this wild project. It was soon abandoned, for the liberty-loving Virginia settlers paid no attention whatever to such attempts, and refused absolutely to accept any such system. They had tasted of the pleasures and benefits of the freedom they enjoyed in the New World and did not propose to surrender it.

The growth of Carolina was slow, and this period of its history- is rendered memorable by the destructive savage war with the Indians in In the proprietary government was forfeited to the crown, and it continued a crown colony until the Revolution, which separated it, with other American colonies, from Great Britain. In the Southern section of Carolina was cud off, and two distinct governments formed, under the names of North and South Carolina.

In the inhabitants of the Western counties, styling themselves "Regulators,' organized themselves into a body of 1, men, and attempted to establish an independent government, but they were defeated by Governor Tyron, being killed. During the war of the Revolution, North Carolina was, for a considerable time, the seat of hostilities, and some of the most brilliant achievements of the great war for independence were performed upon her soil.

The battle of 'Moore's Creek Bridge, Ding's 'Mountain and Guilford Courthouse will ever remain imperishable memorials. So closely have relations ever keen maintained between North Carolina and Virginia the people of the two sections, notwithstanding division in government, have shod as one on all the great questions involving the welfare and future of these two neighbors.

Its soil resembles that of Virginia, its interest are the same, its people are as one. South Carolina was not settled permanently for nearly a century after the settlement at Roanoke. The first settlement was planted at, or near, Port Royal inunder the direction of William Sayle, the first Governor of the Province.

In Charles II. This was made possible by the introduction of the cultivation of ricewhich turned the tide of immigration in its direction.

Indigo and cotton being later introduced, South Carolina began a steady advance toward wealth and independence. Notwithstanding- the continued savage warfare along her frontier there was continued advancement in population and prosperity until the war of the Revolution.

Her inhabitants tools an active part in the battle for liberty- while the names of Marion, Sumter and Lee, and the battles of Cowpens and Utah Springs, will ever continue to occupy a prominent place in the history of our country.

Georgia was the last of the thirteen provinces to be settled by the English. Previous to it was a wilderness, claimed by Spain as well as England. In November of that year General James Oglethorpe, with persons, left England and arrived at Charleston in January, In the spring they- founded Savannah.

The advance of the colony was exceedingly slow, and in the charter was surrendered to the Crown. A general representative assembly was established in and was followed by a cession of all the country between the Alatahama and St.

how much money did carpenters make in colonial times

Mary's River in This grant was of greater consequence to Georgia and to the other colonies, as it brought about, or was at least the prime cause, of the cession of Florida by Spain to Great Britain. From this time Georgia began rapid increase in population, notwithstanding the retarding influence of Indian warfare.

When the American Revolution began, her inhabitants had just begun to enjoy the blessings of peace. She had not suffered, as had the older colonies, the tyranny practiced by the House of Stuart, and knew the operation of the royal government only in contrast with that of the former proprietors.

Notwithstanding this fact, her liberty-loving inhabitants did not hesitate to cast their lot with their Northern brethren and join them in defiance of the edicts of the English throne. In March,they sent a delegate to Congress, and in July of the same year delegates from the province gave sanction to the measures adopted by the thirteen colonies for denfense. Georgia was over-run by British troops, and the losses of her citizens were great, but they remained faithful to the end, and the descendants of these hardy pioneers have every reason to be proud of their inheritance.

Next to Virginia, Georgia has ceded to the United States more territory than any other colony and State. Florida was given its name by its discoverer, Juan Ponce de Leon, who arrived on its coasts on Palm Sunday Pasque Floridain This name was first used in general literature when describing the territory lying along the whole Atlantic Coast of North America.

It was the flattering reports made by Ponce de Leon's expedition, heralded throughout Europe, that caused the sovereigns of other nations to look with jealous eyes toward the Western Continent. Conflicting claims soon arose on account of other nations attempting settlement within the bounds claimed by the Spanish King.

France attempted colonization inbut the settlers were surprised and massacred by the Spanish in The French revenged this massacre, but the Spaniard's renamed and founded the city of St. In West Florida was settled and the city of Pensacola founded. The territory was often invaded by both the French and English, but remained part of New Spain untilwhen it was ceded to Great Britain, and shortly afterward divided into two parts, called East and West Florida, with the River Appalachicola as the boundary line.

Augustine and began the cultivation of indigo and sugar cane, finding the soil fertile and their efforts profitable. In Don Galvez Spanish Governor of Louisiana, conquered West Florida, and two years afterward, Great Britain ceded both provinces to Spain.

The United States acquired the territory by treaty inand since that time it has remained an integral part of the American republic. This completes the list of the various settlements along the Atlantic Coast, and we again return to Virginia and resume the discussion of its history as a colony. The end of the administration of the Virginia Company and the taking over of affairs by the King, James L, dates from his proclamation of July 13,seventeen years after the settlement at Jamestown.

For some years there had been a constant dispute between the King and the Company. The liberal charters obtained by Edwin Sandys and his associates, combined with the independence shown by the Company, and the liberty loving settlers, had been the source of a great deal of opposition on the part of the King, who implicitly believes ; in the royal prerogative to dictate his twill to all subjects wherever they might dwell. This was aggravated to a great extent by the secret machinations of Gondomar and the Spanish King.

Edwin Sandys, Pronounced Sands, the y being silent. It was sometimes spelled Sandes. In company with George Cranmer, a grandnephew of Archbishop Cranmer, he had traveled in Europe for six years spending most of that time at Geneva, where he had studied the Calvinistic doctrines, and become seasoned with Genevan principle, which were antagonistic to all monarchial principles of government.

It can be readily seen why a man with his convictions should attempt to establish a free government in Virginia, and how he gathered around him, men of the same opinions, such as Southampton, Farrar, Cavendish and others, who were among the most advanced thinkers of that clay. The administration of Sir Thomas Smith had not only proved a failure, but a large amount of the money subscribed by stockholders in the company had been lost without proper accounting on the part of Smith and his assistants, and it was to save the company- from bankruptcy and failure.

Had it not been for the intrigues of Gondomar. Warwick, Argall and other members of the company, under the influence of the last two mentioned, it is doubtful if even the King could have succeeded in his determination to annul the charter; for he seized upon these charges as just cause for sending a commission to Virginia to investigate the affairs of the company.

These men, being in his employ, naturally returned a report to his liking. John Farrar, the deputy treasurer, writes that "The King was at the bottom of this whole proceeding which from beginning to end was a despotic violation of honor and of justice; which proved him to be a roan void of every laudable principle of action.

When sides were taken in controversy in the company, prior to the dissolution, the Warwick faction could only summon twenty-six adherents; whereas, the Sandys faction had over 1, supporters within the membership alone.

The company did not surrender its rights without protest. The best legal minds of England were employed to fight before the courts and an appeal was even made to Parliament, which, unfortunately, was nearly ready to adjourn, though favorable to the claim of the Sandys faction.

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